List of Topical Sessions
CRYOSPHERIC, OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES
COA01. Glacier Change and Ice-Ocean Interaction
Derek Mueller (Carleton University)
Luke Copland (University of Ottawa)
Arctic glaciers and ice shelves have undergone substantial changes in the last decade, including the production of numerous icebergs and larger ice islands. Understanding the changing dynamics of these cryospheric features can provide insight into the impacts and patterns of climate and oceanic warming in high latitude regions. There are currently many unanswered questions in this topic, such as whether glaciers will speed up or slow down in response to a warming climate, whether Arctic ice shelf losses can have upstream effects on glacier dynamics, and how recently observed Arctic sea ice losses are related to ice shelf breakup events. There is also a need for improved understanding of the impacts of these changes on northern infrastructure, such as the degree of risk ice islands pose to offshore oil development, and whether iceberg production from glaciers will impact northern shipping. This session will bring together recent research in these topics, and we encourage contributions from researchers working in field, modelling and remote sensing studies of all aspects of ice shelves/tongues, icebergs/ice islands, glaciers and ice caps.
COA02. Marine Cryosphere: Physical Properties and Processes, and Remote Sensing
David Babb (University of Manitoba)
Ryan Galley (University of Manitoba)
The marine cryosphere is experiencing changes unprecedented in the Anthropocene. Advancing a system level understanding of thermodynamic and dynamic properties and processes within snow covered sea ice, along with their affects on ocean-atmosphere interactions is vital to quantify and assess the impact of observed changes. We propose a broad, interdisciplinary and international marine cryospheric session on physical aspects of, and processes within snow and sea ice based on observation, methodological development, or remote sensing. The conveners welcome papers which contribute to a fruitful discussion of Arctic sea ice and snow properties and processes from the smallest to the largest scales in space and time.
COA03. Quantifying Thaw Subsidence and Frost Heave in Permafrost Terrain - Bringing Together Multiscale Measurements and Implications for the Future
Julia Boike (Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, Germany)
Sofia Antonova (GIScience, Institute of Geography, Heidelberg University, Germany)
Philip Marsh (Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada)
In permafrost lands, the active layer is the upper layer of the ground which thaws and freezes seasonally. A fully water-saturated active layer in summer increases in volume during freezing in winter due to the decrease in density of ice compared to water. Cycles of excess ice formation in winter and loss in summer result in seasonal vertical movements of the ground in both directions, notably frost heave and thaw settlement (or subsidence). The magnitude of these movements depends on the ice/water content and distribution in the active layer. Measuring the magnitudes of these movements can in turn aid in estimation of ice/water content, which is one of the most important ground variables for permafrost modeling. Besides the seasonal thaw subsidence and frost heave, long-term and, likely, irreversible subsidence was observed in different permafrost regions by several studies which included in situ and remote sensing observations. This long-term net subsidence is likely explained by thawing of very ice-rich permafrost directly under the active layer and corresponds well to the observed warming in the Arctic during last decades. Methods for the detection and quantifying such ground movements include repeat in situ measurements such as thaw tubes, heave rods, differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements and terrestrial laser scanning as well as remote sensing methods such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry and airborne laser scanning. These methods aim at different spatial scales, ranging from pointwise to the averaged over tens of square meters. Bringing the gap between these scales and perform a reliable validation of remote sensing observations is an essential task for the deep understanding of mechanism of subsidence and heave processes and predicting the future state of permafrost terains. This session proposes to bring together results of circum-Arctic observations on thaw subsidence and frost heave, and discuss the current challenges for these observations as well as possible strategies of combining in situ and satellite scales.
COA04. Periglacial Landscapes, Geocryology and Permafrost
Michel Paquette (University of Montreal, Centre for Northern Studies)
Daniel Fortier (University of Montreal, Centre for Northern Studies)
Scott Lamoureux (Queen's University)
Polar and high altitude landscape development is linked with periglacial processes and with the development and degradation of permafrost and of ground ice. The processes involved often occur and operate at highly recurring (seasonal to annual) intervals, incrementally affecting the long-term (centurial to millennial) evolution of the periglacial landscape. In addition, the direction and intensity of earth surface evolution are strongly linked with climatic conditions, which govern the relative importance of processes affecting soil erosion and sedimentation, landform formation and destruction as well as ground ice growth and degradation. This session is dedicated to research focused on periglacial processes and azonal processes altered by periglacial conditions, all of which impact landscape development. It aims at covering a multitude of timescales, and at presenting research interested in earth shaping processes and conditions resulting either from recent and future climate changes or from past to present conditions. Topics include, but are not limited to:
COA05. Physical and Biogeochemical Processes in Arctic Shelf Seas
CÃ©line GuÃ©guen (Trent University)
Zou Zou Kuzyk (University of Manitoba)
Robie Macdonald (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
The linkages between land and ocean, and the roles of coastal shelf seas are key to understand and model the Earth system. The Arctic shelf seas, e.g. Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, Hudson Bay, and Laptev Sea, are all strongly influenced by river discharges and coastal processes. Compared with open oceans, shelf seas have higher productivity and biogeochemical cycling activity, which are controlled by local processes, such as river runoff, coastal circulation, interactions with the continental shelves and, sea ice production and melting. Therefore, it is important to investigate the role that Arctic shelf seas play in linking the land with oceanic regions to better predict the whole Arctic Ocean ecosystem. The session seeks contributions from studies including, but not limited to, estuarine processes, terrestrial fluxes, remote sensing and productivity in the Arctic shelf seas.
COA06. Coastal Processes and the Vulnerability of Communities, Resources and Ecosystems
Dustin Whalen (Natural Resources Canada)
Hugues Lantuit (Alfred Wegener Institut)
Arctic coastlines cover one third of the global coastline. These coastlines are changing faster than anywhere else in the world which has huge implications to coastal communities, resources and nearshore eco-systems. This session is aimed at bringing together new and exciting research on the processes and evolution of coastal change in Arctic Regions. What critical resources and infrastructure are at risk and how are vulnerable communities being affected. Furthermore, how does the coastal system react to the changing amount of organic matter and contaminants released to the nearshore zone and lastly can we predict the future, what will this vulnerable landscape and eco-system look like in the next century.
COA07. Atmospheric Processes and Interfaces in the Arctic
Kaley A. Walker (Dept. of Physics, University of Toronto)
Emma Mungall (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Toronto)
Oleksandr Huziy (Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, UQAM)
Much of the physical and chemical activity in the Arctic atmosphere occurs at the interfaces with the sea ice, snow, ocean, and land as well as with the global atmospheric systems. These interactions and processes are complex and varied, but are also important to understanding the entire Arctic system. This session invites papers on the atmospheric interfaces and processes wherever they occur and on measurements, models and understanding of the fluxes across these atmospheric interfaces. Sponsored by the PAHA (Probing the Atmosphere of the High Arctic), NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments), CanSISE (Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution) and CNRCWP (Canadian Network for Regional Climate and Weather Processes) projects.
COA08. Cryospheric, Oceanographic and Atmospheric Processes â€“ Other
Abstracts that do not fit under any of the specific sessions listed in this category should be included here.
ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS AND WILDLIFE
ECO01. Arctic Marine Primary Producers: Bloom Phenology, Production Estimates, and Biogeochemical Processes in an Era of Climate Change
C.J. Mundy (CEOS, University of Manitoba)
Eva Leu (Akvaplan-niva, Norway)
Ane Cecilie Kvernvik (UNIS/University of TromsÃ¸)
The Arctic's warming climate is driving an overall reduction in the extent and thickness of the sea ice cover, extending its melt season and delaying its freeze-up. It is also having an impact on the Arctic's freshwater budget and the distribution of water masses and their nutrients. These changes are having noticeable impacts on marine primary producers in the sea ice, water column and benthos of the Arctic, including shifts in species composition, phenology, range, and production. In turn, increased production is drawing down surface nutrient inventories, highlighting a feedback on the overall extent of primary production attainable in our northern high-latitude seas. Recent years have seen significant advances in our understanding of Arctic primary producers and the biogeochemical processes that influence their production, but our capacity to predict what will happen in a forecasted seasonal ice-covered Arctic Ocean is still strongly limited. For this session we invite field, experimental, and modeling investigations focused on ice, pelagic and/or benthic algae in the Arctic marine system.
ECO02. Arctic Marine Primary Producers: The Green Edge Project - Implications of Changing Spring Bloom Dynamics on the Arctic Ecosystem
Marcel Babin (Takuvik, UniversitÃ© Laval and CNRS)
C.J. Mundy (CEOS, University of Manitoba)
Jean-Ã‰ric Tremblay (UniversitÃ© Laval)
Phytoplankton grow in the top tens of meters of both ice-free and ice-covered waters. The phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) that develops at the ice-edge accounts for >50% of annual primary production in the AO and is generally associated with both large energy transfer to higher trophic levels and export of carbon to the bottom. In turn, the culture, health and economic capacity building of Northerners are closely associated with marine resources supported by the PSB. The Arctic PSB develops in the seasonally-covered ice zone (SIZ), the extent of which is expected to increase significantly during the next years, possibly over the whole AO as early as in 2030. How the PSB will evolve in this context is currently unknown. Will it span over the entire AO and thereby make the AO ecosystems more productive? In contrast, will the ongoing modifications in physical properties of the AO limit the PSB and PP? How will biodiversity respond to and/or impact on those changes? To be able to answer these questions, it is necessary to understand with great details and quantitatively the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the preconditioning, development and decline of the PSB. Since this is a transient phenomenon occurring in a remote, complex and harsh environment, such a detailed understanding has not yet been achieved. Green Edge field operations were conducted in the spring and early summer from an ice camp near the community of Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut in 2015 and 2016 and aboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2016 to 1) understand the key physical, chemical and biological processes governing the PSB, 2) identify the key phytoplankton species involved in the PSB and model their growth under controlled conditions; 3) track the fate of the PSB and related carbon transfer through the marine ecosystem; 4) document optical properties of seawater at the ice edge during the PSB, optimize ocean colour algorithms and primary production models; 5) reconstruct the dynamics of the PSB during past climatic transitions; 5) model PSB dynamics and predict its response to climate change; and 6) access the impact of predicted changes in marine productivity on Inuit food security. During this session, the international consortium of Green Edge researchers are invited to present results obtained over the four-year project, fostering discussion about the consequences of climate change on open-ocean ecosystems the Arctic.
ECO03. From Zooplankton to Fisheries: Arctic Marine Food Webs in Seasonally Ice-Covered Seas
Louis Fortier (UniversitÃ© Laval)
GÃ©rald Darnis (UniversitÃ© Laval)
FrÃ©dÃ©ric Maps (UniversitÃ© Laval)
Pelagic fish and zooplankton play a pivotal role in high-latitude marine ecosystems. They are key drivers of the transfer of energy from ice algae and phytoplankton to seabirds, whales and humans. Fish and zooplankton vertical migrations and feeding impact the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem. Â Krill are crucial in the pelagic ecosystems of polar oceans by forming large aggregations attracting numerous predators and significant international fisheries. Â The importance of fisheries in the circum-Arctic ranges from: the central basins with limited accessibility, low fish biomass and no significant fisheries; to regions with considerable subsistence and community-based commercial fisheries; through to some of the most productive and lucrative commercial fishing grounds in the world. The state of knowledge and monitoring of fish populations also varies greatly among regions. Arctic fish are ecologically, culturally and socio-economically important as illustrated respectively by the Arctic cod, a key species in high Arctic marine ecosystems; the Arctic char, inextricably linked to the economy and health of the Inuit; and the Greenland halibut, accounting for 25% of Greenland's export economy.Â The role of fish and zooplankton-mediated processes remain poorly understood in polar seas but this information is essential for the development of proper ecosystem models of responses to on-going and projected shifts in light, temperature, sea ice and primary production regimes.Â In addition, climate change impacts on high-latitude marine ecosystems and fisheries include geographic shifts in species distribution and abundance, modifications of predator-prey interactions, changes in phenology and species invasions. In this session, we encourage: contributions investigating the ecology, life cycles, behaviours and spatio-temporal distribution of zooplankton and fish including biogeochemical roles;Â studies of the physiology and behaviour of krill species from both the Arctic and Austral seasonally ice-covered seas; Â submissions from scientists, fisheries managers and stakeholders from around the world to foster a broad discussion on fish and fisheries in the Arctic in all disciplines of marine, freshwater and diadromous fish.
ECO04. Studying Trophic Interactions in Arctic Ecosystems
Jennifer Provencher (Acadia University)
David Yurkowski (University of Manitoba)
While Arctic food webs represent relatively simple systems as compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems, the long summer days and nutrient rich waters make the marine ecosystems of the Arctic a dynamic and productive environment for many of the species found in the region. From zooplankton to whales, Arctic marine species typically build lipid stores during the productive open water period and are interconnected through a suite of hierarchical trophic interactions which structure Arctic food webs. Importantly, Arctic food webs can differ across time and space, and this session will examine how trophic interactions can vary through these dimensions in the Arctic marine environment. Understanding this variation is critical to understand how perturbations from climate change and species redistributions to anthropogenic activities can influence food web interactions over multiple scales. This includes changing sea ice conditions with the extent of summer sea ice predicted to be almost negligible in the coming decades, and increased ship traffic or resource development in the region may influence animal behavior, movement and associated inter-specific interactions that underpin food web dynamics. This session will examine how Arctic marine food webs and associated inter-specific interactions are currently being studied, highlighting the implications of these results on current and future trophic dynamics in the Arctic. This includes tracking of wildlife to examine connectivity of sites and species interactions, use of biochemical tools to better understand energy flow throughout the system, as well as other interdisciplinary tools. The session will also highlight changing trophic interactions through space and time in relation to varying degrees of climatic and anthropogenic stressors (ex. changes in sea ice, shipping, pollution etc.).
ECO05. Pelagic-Benthic Coupling in the Arctic Ocean
Christina Bienhold (Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research and Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology)
Catherine Lalande (UniversitÃ© Laval)
Nathalie Morata (Akvaplan-niva)
Pelagic and benthic ecosystems are strongly influenced by sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. As a result of increasing temperatures and sea-ice loss, the entire region is currently undergoing rapid changes with largely unknown consequences for the coupling between pelagic and benthic ecosystems. In this session, authors are invited to present results including but not limited to carbon export, fluxes of biogenic matter, carbon sequestration, benthic community structure and function, benthic oxygen consumption, and all processes related to pelagic-benthic coupling across the shelves, slopes, and basins of the Arctic Ocean. We are particularly interested in contributions addressing how climate change affects and will continue to affect these processes.
ECO06. Marine Biodiversity Discovery in the Arctic
Philippe Archambault (UniversitÃ© Laval)
Evan Edinger (Memorial University)
Biodiversity research in the Arctic continues to uncover previously unknown populations, habitats, and species records, plus possible species new to science. Biodiversity discovery depends on a variety of new technologies from genetic analysis to remote operated vehicles. This session will highlight the discoveries of previously unknown marine biodiversity and biodiversity patterns in the Arctic, from microbes to marine mammals. Particular emphasis will be placed on discovery of biodiversity and ecosystem function patterns associated with Arctic biogenic habitats such as corals and sponges.
ECO07. Arctic Marine Mammals and the Complexity of Climate Change
Melissa McKinney (University of Connecticut)
Steve Ferguson (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Alysa McCall (Polar Bears International)
Arctic marine ecosystems are undergoing rapid change due to climate forcing, with many documented, as well other likely unknown consequences for marine mammals. Impacts include shifts in migration routes and phenology, habitat use, and predator-prey interactions including redistributions of marine mammal prey (e.g., Arctic cod) and predators (e.g., killer whales). Such ecological shifts may also exacerbate the risks to marine mammals posed by other stressors, such as exposures to environmental contaminants, plastics debris, parasites, and pathogens, ultimately impacting individual and population health. An increasingly warm Arctic also translates into increasing human use in a biome that has long been difficult to access. In this session, we aim to provide a platform for a broad range of studies highlighting how ecological changes are impacting pinnipeds, cetaceans, and polar bears across the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic Seas. We encourage works relating such ecological changes to climate forcing, investigations highlighting novel species interactions, and those testing linkages to other key interacting environmental stressors that may exert adverse impacts on Arctic marine mammal populations. Studies integrating biological and physical sciences across spatial and temporal scales, both empirical- and model-based, and those incorporating local knowledge or new technologies, are welcome.
ECO09. Rapid Changes in Extreme Environments: the High Arctic
Greg Henry (The University of British Columbia)
Warwick Vincent (UniversitÃ© Laval)
The High Arctic is the most extreme environment in the northern hemisphere. Warming in the region over the past 30 years is approximately twice the global average. Tundra systems show increased productivity and changes in species composition, including greater shrub cover. Although these terrestrial systems are underlain by cold, deep, continuous permafrost, thawing and disturbance is increasing and affecting sediments in freshwater systems. It contains the greatest cover of ice caps and glaciers (including Greenland) in the N hemisphere, but the loss of ice has accelerated. It has the shortest ice-free period of all sea ice dominated regions, and marine areas receive enormous amounts of freshwater from glacial melt. Given the rapid changes in this extreme environment, we propose a special session at Arctic Change 2017 that will provide an opportunity to review the ongoing changes and consequences for this unique region. We will invite 5-7 prominent researchers to present overviews of changes and consequences in the major components of the High Arctic system (climate, marine, terrestrial, freshwater, permafrost, glacial). A panel discussion at the end of the session will allow the audience to ask questions of all the presenters and to allow synergy among the speakers. The overview papers will be submitted as part of a special issue of the journal Arctic Science on the High Arctic, planned for 2018. We will also link the session to identified posters in the poster sessions.
ECO10. Climate Change Impacts on Arctic Freshwater Systems
Climate models predict that, given current rates of greenhouse gas emissions, autumn and winter temperatures and precipitation are projected to rise substantially in Arctic regions. Such warming and wetting, coupled with extended growing seasons, is anticipated to greatly alter Arctic watersheds and impact freshwater ecosystems through increased glacial melt, permafrost thaw, altered surface runoff regimes, reduced ice cover and increased net primary production. This session will explore impacts of warming northern watersheds on freshwater processes and resources vital for securing food, clean drinking water and traditional lifestyles for Northern peoples.
ECO11. CAFF's Arctic Migratory Bird Initiative, a Flyway Level Approach to Conservation
Jennifer Provencher (Acadia University)
Vicky Jonhston (Environment and Climate Change Canada)
Amie Black (Environment and Climate Change Canada)
Arctic-breeding migratory birds are a significant component of both northern culture and ecosystem health. The recent Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, delivered to the Arctic Council by the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna working group (CAFF), highlighted that Arctic breeding migratory birds were in significant declines in several regions, and due to the flyway-level movement of migratory birds, a large flyway-level conservation approach would be needed in order to improve their population status. The Arctic Migratory Bird Initiative (AMBI) was started by CAFF in 2015, and aims to improve the conservation status of Arctic- breeding migratory birds through flyway-level cooperation with Arctic and non-Arctic countries and partners. In 2015 AMBI was initiated under leadership from Canada, Norway, Russia and the US. Since this time the AMBI has helped to initiate projects on Arctic breeding migratory bird conservation in each of the four defined AMBI flyways (Americas, Circumpolar, African-Eurasian and East Asian-Australasian). Actions include the promotion of site protection status through local community engagement, integrating traditional knowledge and science for management planning, assessing illegal killing of birds in some regions and working with fisherman to estimate seabird bycatch rates. This session will bring together presentations from AMBI related projects across the four flyways, and work towards integrating lessons in conservation successes to be applied across the flyways. The session invites relevant oral and poster presentations, and will end with a facilitated discussion about flyway-level conservation of Arctic migratory birds. Other non-AMBI flyway-level conservation programs that use trans-boundary approaches to Arctic conservation will be accepted. Within this session we hope to spur on discussions in relation to the benefits and challenges of working in a trans-boundary conservation framework, and continue to seek collaborations and project synthesis mechanisms as AMBI continues under Arctic Council approval until 2019.
ECO12. Pagophilia in a World Without Ice: Ecology of Ice-Associated Wildlife in the 21st Century
Kyle Elliott (Canada Research Chair in Arctic Ecology)
George Divoky (Friends of Cooper Island)
Christophe Barbraud (CNRS)
Ice provides a unique ecosystem for wildlife, as it creates an important boundary and platform that limits access of marine life to air while extending terrestrial species' access to marine life. Consequently, many unique species are ice-adapted, and pagophilia is a common feature of polar wildlife. As the extent and volume of global sea ice continues to decline, the importance of pagophilia will be an important component of the resilience of polar wildlife to change. The proposed session will use traditional knowledge, conventional wildlife biology and state-of-the-art bio-loggers to examine associations between ice and wildlife ranging from fish to marine mammals to seabirds, at scales ranging from days to decades. A number of important long-term datasets (up to 50 years) will be presented, and data from long-term studies of behaviour, physiology and demography will be combined to assess mechanisms linking ice with population-level processes. The session will be organized in a sequence that represents the expanding scales of study, from primary productivity and ice dynamics, to the behaviour and physiology of individual animals, and eventually to demography of multiple predatory species. The session will pay particular attention to what 'pagophilic' wildlife do when ice disappears. The session will be based on SENSEI (SENtinels of the SEa Ice), a three-year BNP Paribas Climate Initiative project begun in 2017, which gathers experts from both poles into a common framework for examination of ice-obligate species (23 co-investigators from 6 Polar nations). However, the session will expand beyond SENSEI and presentations are encouraged studying similar themes at either pole to provide a comprehensive examination of pagophilia in Arctic and Antarctic species from zooplankton to fish to predators. There is the possibility that BNP Paribas could sponsor a journal special issue dedicated to the topic.
ECO13. Arctic Marine, Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems â€“ Other
Abstracts that do not fit under any of the specific sessions listed in this category should be included here.
ECO14. Arctic Wildlife â€“ Other
Abstracts that do not fit under any of the specific sessions listed in this category should be included here.
MONITORING, DATA MANAGEMENT AND MODELING
MON01. Marine Robotics Applications in Ice-Covered Environments
Richard Mills (Kongsberg Maritime AS)
Nick Burchill (Kongsberg Maritime Canada Ltd.)
There have been many deployments of unmanned underwater vehicles (AUVs and ROVs) in ice covered environments. These include Arctic and Antarctic regions as well as ice covered lakes. Activities of under ice vehicles includes hydrographic and oceanographic survey, investigation and exploration of areas of scientific interest and commercial operations such as pipeline surveys. The platforms used include small man-portable autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), large deep water survey class AUVs, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and buoyancy powered gliders. The various vehicle types (AUVs, ROVs and gliders) are considered mature technologies by commercial manufacturers. For example, ROVs have been used in the oil and gas industry since the mid-1970s and AUVs have seen commercial survey operations for more than 15 years. Under ice operations have been limited, with the majority of activities conducted by research organisations. This session aims to investigate the methods of deployment, scientific requirements, payload sensors and results achieved. Other topics for discussion include the logistical challenges of operating from ice breakers compared to ice camp locations will also be discussed. The objective of the session is to discover new developments, identify challenges and promote best practise of the use of marine robotic platforms in challenging environments. Papers are sought from equipment manufacturers, commercial operators and scientific researchers to cover all aspects of underwater robotic platforms used in ice covered environments.
MON02. Environmental Monitoring and Autonomous Research Platforms in the Marine Arctic
JÃ¸rgen Berge (UiT The Arctic University of Norway)
Asgeir SÃ¸rensen (NTNU Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems)
Paul Wassman (UiT The Arctic University of Norway)
Global temperatures have been rising during the last century, particularly in polar regions. At the same time, climate change facilitates enhanced pressures on the Arctic marine environment and its resources, both in terms of the activities supported, and in terms of their northern geographical extent. Reduction in Arctic sea ice coverage increases the accessibility to new areas for oil and gas exploration, opens new shipping routes, and allows a northward expansion of fishing grounds. A quantitative and mechanistic understanding of ecosystems and how natural processes (abiotic and biotic) and anthropogenic activities may influence these systems is important, and has received increased attention during the last decade from authorities, the scientific community and industry. The marine Arctic constitute a challenging environment for year round data collection, both for research and monitoring purposes. Darkness, low temperatures and sea ice restrict access for manned operations, resulting in a severe paucity in empirical data. This session will explore current and future platforms suitable for use in the Arctic, either in terms of as fully autonomous platforms or integrated observational networks capable of year round observation.
MON03. The Arctic Observing System: Canadian Priorities for Research and Instrumentation
Maribeth Murray (Arctic Instititue of North America, Univesity of Calgary)
Soeren Rysgaard (Centre for Earth Observation, University of Manitoba)
The continued development of a pan-Arctic Observing System of Systems remains an important objective, as does cooperation in Arctic research - the latter most recently highlighted by the Arctic Council's May 2017 binding ""Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation"". Arctic observing is a key aspect of cooperation, informed by diverse needs and expertise. Observational data is needed by Arctic Indigenous people, for basic and applied scientific research, and by operational, government, Indigenous, and private sector organizations. Observing programs range from large scale remote sensing initiatives to downscale local studies and collect data on different components and aspects of the Arctic system. Observing initiatives engage a broad spectrum of the biological, health, physical, and social sciences, and Indigenous knowledge experts. The session invites papers focused Canada's contribution to the development of a sustained and integrated pan- Arctic Observing System of Systems that meets societal and scientific needs for information. The goal is to identify areas where Canada is well-positioned to advance observation and monitoring of the various bio-physical components of the Arctic system, and the needed infrastructures and instrumentation to ensure this. Contributions that highlight Inuit priorities are encouraged as are those that identify key scientific questions that can only be addressed through improved observation and where improvements are needed (scope, scale, data delivery, instrumentation, etc.), In addition, authors may consider: 1) strategies for leveraging existing and planned initiatives; 2) ways to support the development and sharing of infrastructure and instrumentation; 3) areas where Canadian efforts can or should be concentrated; 4) recent advances in observing technologies.
MON04. Advancing Data Sharing, Access, and Analysis for Understanding the Arctic
Julie Fridell (Polar Data Catalogue/Canadian Cryospheric Information Network, U. Waterloo)
Paul Thompson (The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice)
Shannon Christoffersen Vossepoel (Research Data and Info. Svc., Arctic Institute of North America, U. Calgary)
As global progress is made in the policies, infrastructure, tools, and practice of effective data management, more Arctic data are becoming publicly available, and thus, increasingly accessible online. This wealth of newly-available Arctic data resources allows for greater data reuse and integration, leading to increased opportunities for understanding the various environmental, social, economic, and other changes occurring in northern regions. To realize this opportunity, however, new services and tools must be established to facilitate and simplify data sharing and access so that users do not have to struggle to find, combine, and analyse these data for new research and discovery. In this session, we invite presentations on sharing and integrating data to facilitate access, analysis, and understanding of the changing Arctic. We encourage researchers, data managers, and others interested in using public data to share their experiences, plans, and needs for enhancing data availability and reuse. Examples could include techniques for producing data in standardized formats to streamline archiving and subsequent sharing, establishment of interoperability functions at repositories for sharing metadata and data files, or researcher requirements for integrating disparate datasets for advanced analysis. Specific examples may include specialized web services or other sharing tools, data visualisations and interactive display, or analysis interfaces which allow data mashup or fusion to reach new conclusions from old data. Additionally, we invite presentations which demonstrate data analysis tools, not only for quantitative data but also for qualitative analysis of textual data from surveys, interviews, or other social science research.
MON05. Arctic Remote Sensing: Improving Arctic Monitoring of Sea Ice, Snow, Glaciers and Permafrost for Wildlife Preservation
Benoit Montpetit (National Wildlife Research Center, Environment and Climate Change Canada)
Alexandre Langlois (UniversitÃ© de Sherbrooke)
Ludovik Brucker (GESTAR Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA GSFC)
The Canadian arctic is currently going through very intense changes in landscapes and ecosystems. These changes have an effect on the local communities, industries and infrastructures. All those changes will have an impact on the arctic wildlife as well. The knowledge of arctic wildlife is continuously growing with the multiplication of scientific studies on the different species that live in the arctic. These studies focus mainly on the habits and behaviours of these species but the links between these behaviors and their ever changing habitats is yet unclear. Local studies give some insight on how the environment affects the wildlife but the Arctic is a vast territory that is very difficult to monitor with traditional localized methods. Remote sensing sensors like passive microwaves, visible, Synthetic Aperture RADAR and infrared sensors have proven very useful to monitor the environmental conditions of the arctic sea ice, snow, land ice and permafrost. These tools linked with the traditional knowledge from communities and localized studies can prove invaluable to understanding the behaviors of the arctic wildlife and helping decision makers with preservation policies. This session aims at sharing new results on remotely sensed geophysical environment parameters and their links to arctic wildlife survival and preservation and how it all affects the arctic environment, economy and communities.
MON06. Monitoring, Modeling and Predicting Arctic Biodiversity
Dominique Berteaux (Canada Research Chair on Northern Biodiversity, UQAR)
Pascale Ropars (Canada Research Chair on Northern Biodiversity, UQAR)
The unique values of Arctic nature are increasingly discussed at high levels. In this context, the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council recently published the massive Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, a contribution from 253 scientists together with holders of traditional knowledge. This Assessment provides a much-needed synthesis of status and trends in support of decision-making and future assessments of Arctic biodiversity. It also highlights numerous knowledge gaps on biodiversity, at a time when many stressors are emerging from climate change and socioeconomic development in the Arctic. For example, terrestrial greening due to shrub encroachment, changing abundance of key herbivores, alteration of main ecosystem functions, and emergence of pest species outbreaks and zoonoses are observed throughout the Arctic. Yet very few sites in the Arctic are devoted to long term research and monitoring, and our observing capacity of Arctic ecosystems thus remains very low. Modelling of Arctic biodiversity, a critical ingredient of scientific understanding, suffers from a lack of data about some of the most important ecological processes. Despite these knowledge gaps, there is an urgent need to build scenarios of change for Arctic biodiversity, in part because many indigenous communities still rely on traditional food. This Arctic Change session will highlight the most recent research dealing with the monitoring of Arctic biodiversity, the modelling of populations and ecosystems, and our predicting capacities regarding the future ecological state of the circumpolar North. The session will encompass terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, will consider a variety of biological taxa, from plants to arthropods and vertebrates, and will cover several levels of organization including individuals, populations and ecosystems. Researchers, students, Inuit and Northerners, policy-makers, private sector representatives and the media should all find relevant information and ideas in these presentations.
MON07. Advancing Statistically and Dynamically Accurate Descriptions of the Physical and Biogeochemical State of the Ocean
Dany Dumont (UniversitÃ© du QuÃ©bec Ã Rimouski)
Fraser Davidson (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Laurent Memery (Laboratoire des sciences de l'environnement marin, CNRS)
This session will highlight the work of major Canadian initiatives that are describing the physical and biogeochemical state of the ocean. The initiatives highlighted in the session will include the Canadian government led work on CONCEPTS (Canadian Operational Network on Coupled Environmental Prediction Systems); the Dalhousie University led Network of Centres of Excellence MEOPAR (Marine Environmental Observation, Prediction and Response); the international Green Edge project; and, others. Significant work has been undertaken by these initiatives which are complementary and together cross the spectrum of observations, modelling, predictions, and statistical and dynamic representations that can most accurately describe conditions of ice, physical and biogeochemical states of oceans. This session will link observations to models and will highlight the benefits in sharing observations and needs regarding observing system design. Efforts to describe the physical and biogeochemical state of Canada's north are particularly important in support of the ongoing Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP). The session will highlight the need for meaningful user engagement and stakeholder uptake of information with the demonstration of the Ocean Navigator as one such mechanism.
MON08. Climate Information for a Changing Arctic
Ross Brown (Environment and Climate Change Canada / Ouranos)
Morten Olsen (Danish Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate)
The rapid pace of climate change in the Arctic coupled with sparse observing networks and complex local-scale processes poses many challenges for providing climate information that meets decision maker needs. In many cases, Arctic communities are located in coastal areas with highly dynamic ice regimes and meteorology which are not resolved well in weather and climate models. This requires improvements in modelling key processes and the development and application of downscaling methods adapted for coastal Arctic environments. Another challenge is understanding user needs; information providers and users often speak different languages, and the development of a common understanding is a critical element in meeting user needs (Huard et al., 2014). The purpose of this session is to bring together climate information specialists and users to highlight progress and challenges in providing climate information to northerners that meets critical needs for decision making. For example, this session would be an ideal forum for assessing the ability of current observing networks and weather and climate models to provide useful climate information in the Arctic, and for users to describe key needs and challenges in applying climate information to meet local needs. We also welcome presentations that highlight the use of climate information in adapting to a changing climate. Huard, D., D. Chaumont, T. Logan, M-F. Sottile, R. D. Brown, B. Gauvin St-Denis, P. Grenier, and M. Braun, 2014: A Decade of Climate Scenarios: The Ouranos Consortium Modus Operandi. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 1213â€“1225. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00163.1
MON09. Arctic Monitoring, Data Management and Modeling - Other
HUMAN HEALTH, WELL-BEING AND ADAPTATION
HUM01. One Health in the North
Emily Jenkins (University of Saskatchewan)
Patrick Leighton (UniversitÃ© de MontrÃ©al)
In this session, we will focus on the human/animal/environmental interface in the North. This includes, but is not limited to, environmental and ecological determinants of health, emerging disease, sustainable wildlife populations, food security, and contaminants and pathogens that circulate among people, animals, and the environment. As One Health is by nature highly collaborative and requires diverse skill sets and perspectives, we anticipate participants from a broad range of disciplines, such as wildlife biology, veterinary medicine, human health, toxicology, and environmental sciences, as well as transdisciplinary participants including policy makers and community members. Presenters will be encouraged to translate their science for this broader audience.
HUM02. Contaminants in a Changing Arctic
Jason Stow (Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada)
Simon Wilson (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme)
The Arctic is contaminated by globally transported pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury from source regions in heavily developed parts of the globe. Over time the sources of these contaminants have been changing (some decreasing, some increasing), which has had a measurable impact on temporal trends of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and many new chemicals with the potential to contaminate the Arctic have entered into commerce. These changes in pollutant sources, however, are being superimposed on an Arctic environment that itself is undergoing rapid climate related changes. Changes in the Arctic environment have significant implications for contaminants and the processes that govern their transport, biogeochemical cycling, and the levels to which they accumulate in Arctic wildlife, and ultimately humans. The environmental changes underway in the Arctic are putting wildlife under significant stress, and may push some species to the brink of extinction as critical habitats, such as multi-year sea ice, are lost, diminished or altered. Some of the most vulnerable species are also exposed to a mixture of contaminant, some of which exceed thresholds for toxic effects. In a weakened condition as a result of environmental stress, could these species become more sensitive to the toxic effects of contaminants? Meanwhile, Arctic Indigenous peoples who are also impacted by changes in their environment are experiencing significant socioeconomic and cultural changes. Among these changes are dietary transitions that often incorporate a greater percentage of market foods. What implications does this dietary transition have for human health and contaminant related risks? This session will explore the subject of contaminants in a changing Arctic environment under the following suggested topics:
HUM03. Food Security in the Arctic - From Understanding to Action
This Session invites presentations providing results from projects examining a broad range of topics related to Food Security in northern communities including, but not limited to:
Abstracts of research that examines these topics through a critical lens are particularly welcomed.
HUM04. Arctic Housing and Community Planning
MylÃ¨ne Riva (Institute for Health and Social Policy and Dept. of Geography, McGill University)
GeneviÃ¨ve Vachon (School of Architecture, UniversitÃ© Laval)
Sustainable housing and community planning in the Arctic is compounded by climate change and urbanization. The provision of affordable, adequate, suitable, accessible, culturally-appropriate, and safe housing for people across the Arctic is an important condition for well-being. There is a need for housing, public space and amenities, as well as biotechnical and sociocultural infrastructures designs and solutions that are suited to northern climate and environmental conditions, and to local lifestyles and cultural preferences. These will also have to be flexible and adapted to the demands of a rapidly growing population and a changing climate. The session proposed will aim to provide a space for dialogue and knowledge-sharing between different sectors, disciplines, and countries. It will cover a range of topics related to Arctic housing and community planning, for example: impacts on health social and economic well-being; vernacular architecture; climate change and infrastructures; settlement and landscape design; planning for an urbanizing Arctic; governance; methods and approaches in co-creating knowledge and co-designing habitat; best practices and lessons learned. The session will be structured to facilitate the sharing of views, approaches and methods as well as networking between research teams and community organisations.The session will be followed by a panel discussion with community leaders and policy makers. The organizers are responsible for two large partnership research programs in Nunavut and Nunavik : Dr. MylÃ¨ne Riva, an Early Career Researcher based at McGill University leading the ""Housing, Health and Well-being across the Arctic: Regional, local and family perspectives"" project, and Dr. GeneviÃ¨ve Vachon, based at UniversitÃ© Laval leading the ""Living in Northern Quebec: Mobilizing, Understanding, Imagining"" project (http://www.habiterlenordquebecois.org/home).
HUM05. Arctic Housing and Community Planning â€“ Panel session (participation by co-chair invitation)
MylÃ¨ne Riva (Institute for Health and Social Policy and Dept. of Geography, McGill U)
GeneviÃ¨ve Vachon (School of Architecture, UniversitÃ© Laval)
The Panel Session is by invitation only, and will follow the session(s) on "Arctic Housing and Community Planning". This Panel discussion will bring together community members, policy makers, architects and planners, as well as academic researchers from across the circumpolar North to discuss challenges and best practices around housing and community planning. Invited panelists would include (but are not limited to) representative(s) of: the Nunavut Housing Corporation, the Government of Nunavut - Department of Health, the Kativik Municipal Housing Bureau, the Kativik Regional Government, and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). Key representatives from Alaska, Greenland, Russia and the Scandinavian countries will also be identified and invited."
HUM06. Vulnerability, Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in the Arctic
Tristan Pearce (University of the Sunshine Coast and University of Guelph)
James Ford (Priestley International Centre for Climate University of Leeds and McGill)
The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of research examining the human dimensions of climate change in the north. Increasingly, this scholarship is examining how climate change interacts with society, documenting impacts, adaptations, and vulnerabilities, and exploring opportunities for policy intervention. Research points to a number of challenges for arctic communities including access to resources important for subsistence, a shifting resource base, and traditional livelihoods under stress. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related risks, directs attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability, and emphasizes the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for arctic regions is slowly emerging, building upon the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and research which has examined what makes communities vulnerable and resilient to the impacts of climate change. This session welcomes papers that focus on the human dimensions of climate change in the Arctic. In particular, we are interested in papers that advance understanding of human adaptation to climate change - (e.g. empirically, methodologically, theoretically), engage with multiple types of knowledge (western science, traditional knowledge) and help us understand how peoples across the Arctic continue to experience and respond to climate change.
HUM07. Human Health, Well-Being and Adaptation â€“ Other
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE ARCTIC
SUD01. Extractive Industries and Sustainable Livelihoods in the Arctic
Stephan Schott (Carleton University)
Dag Avango (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)
Thierry Rodon (UniversitÃ© Laval, QuÃ©bec)
The objective of this is to better understand how the sustainability of local livelihoods is impacted by extractive industries and how the future well-being of communities that depend on extractive industries can be enhanced. This session will gather the researchers from three international research networks on extractive industries (MinErAL, REXSAC and ReSDA) and one ArcticNet project (Mining Economies, Mining Families) that conduct research on the socio-economic impacts of extractive industries on Arctic communities and try to envision a post-mining future for Arctic communities. Papers in these session will look at varying aspects of the relationship between extractive resource development and the sustainability of Arctic communities from a wide range of perspectives (political science, economy, history, geography, industrial relations, business and human development, law and anthropology). The session will provide for a comparison of experiences and approaches in different regions of the Arctic.
SUD02. Change and Sustainability in Coastal Resource-Based Communities in the Arctic
Andrey Petrov (University of Northern Iowa)
Chris Southcott (Lakehead University)
Jessica Greybill (Colgate University)
This session will gather papers that are devoted to different aspects of sustainable development in coastal resource-based communities across the Arctic. Many coastal communities face dramatic changes associated with biogeophisical transformations in the ocean and on the land. At the same time, many also whiteness considerable social changes and challenges caused by resource development, especially extractive industries, both on and offshore. With coastal areas becoming more accessible, these challenges are likely to persist and exacerbate. The session will focus on communiy experiences approached from the positions of the integrated social-ecological systems analysis. How coastal resource-based communities can be sustainable in the transforming natural and social environments? To answer his question we bring together case studies from various parts of the Arctic by combining the efforts of several major research coordination networks: ReSDA, Arctic-COAST, and Arctic-FROST.
SUD03. Oil Spill Preparedness in Arctic Seas
Casey Hubert (Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary)
Gary Stern (Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba)
With escalating marine traffic and potentially significant prospects of oil and gas development, the Arctic is faced with an increasing risk of petroleum pollution. Oil spills are one of the most serious threats to marine ecosystems, and thus they also affect northern communities' livelihoods. Drilling accidents like the Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) and the Marathassa oil spill in English Bay, Vancouver (2015) have highlighted the need for better preparedness for such events. Furthermore, decision-makers in government, industry and indigenous organizations face knowledge, policy and capacity gaps with respect to oil spill mitigation, especially for ice-covered, sub-zero temperature marine waters. Successful preparedness of oil spills in the Arctic is founded on several factors, including (but not limited to) the establishment of effective detection measures, response capabilities and regulations, and spill treatment products/practices. Each of these is presented with unique challenges in the Arctic environment. The current state of oil spill detection in ice-covered environments is limited to a few sensors with limited success, ultimately with no reliable one fit solution. Bioremediation, a mitigation tool involving naturally-present microorganisms, is a new but growing field of research, particularly in the Canadian Arctic. Given the multi-jurisdictional boundaries of Arctic spills, coupled with weakly-understood environmental effects and sensitive political implications of northern oil spills, although multi-governance frameworks are needed to address preparedness regimes, the management of such establishments require well-defined and dedicated resources. We invite you to join us in the discussion of issues surrounding oil spill preparedness in the Arctic. Presentations are invited on detection capabilities, impacts of oil to Arctic ecosystems, mitigation measures, capacity-building needs, management gaps and strategies, policy engagement and case studies.
SUD04. Toward a Strategy to Address Cumulative Effects of Rapid Arctic Transitions due Infrastructure and Climate (RATIC)
Peter Schweitzer (University of Vienna)
Andrey Petrov (University of Northern Iowa)
Elena Kuznetsova (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
The Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III) identified Sustainable Arctic Development as one of its top priorities for Arctic research during the next decade. Three previous RATIC workshops have identified cumulative circumpolar effects of industrial development and climate change. This session will focus more directly on developing a coherent scientific strategy to address some of the most pressing issues. The session is open to papers across all realms of Arctic research including the Social and Human, Terrestrial, Cryosphere, Marine, and Atmosphere that seek an interdisciplinary forum to address infrastructure and climate-change related themes. It is planned that the RATIC session at Arctic Change 2017 will contribute to an over-arching strategy document which will be introduced by a panel discussion, followed by oral presentations to expand on the topic. We encourage oral and poster submissions from social scientists, permafrost scientists, hydrologists, terrestrial ecologists and remote sensing specialists, engineers, members of industry, educators, and local people with insights regarding the RATIC-related topics. We are particularly interested in papers that address any of the above themes with innovative approaches for the following:
SUD05. Megaprojects in the 20th and 21st Century Arctic and Subarctic: Impacts, Governance and Evolving Regulatory Practices
Sabrina Peric (University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology)
Elise Ho-Foong (Savanta Inc)
Whitney Lackenbauer (University of Waterloo, St. Jerome's University, Department of History)
The importance of scientific management and large-scale interventions that negate the complexity of local natures and cultures is rarely considered in the context of the Circumpolar North. This session invites contributions that probe the history, politics and ethnography of megaprojects in the Circumpolar North in the 20th and 21st centuries - from the creation of conventional and ice road networks, to pipeline and mining projects, the building of dams, commercial agriculture, massive housing and resettlement initiatives, the construction of military bases, and even the construction of the Cold War's signature DEW (Distant Early Warning) Line. Further, megaprojects have had critical impacts on Indigenous people, the continued colonization of the North, as well as international politics. In addition, the evolution of the regulatory process around these projects has informed their development. As well, there is interest in drawing on the experiences of Environmental Assessment (EA) practitioners, regulators, and other agencies showing how theoretical regulatory goals are achieved in reality, leading to the development of best practices. In addition, the impacts of large-scale projects now need to be viewed in the context of Climate Change â€“ particularly in the north. This session asks: what are the rationales, governance models, problems and long-lasting impacts of northern megaprojects? In what ways are megaprojects embraced, reformed or resisted by Northern residents? How has the regulatory process in the North evolved in response to these developments and the concurrent impacts of Climate Change? What kinds of new knowledge about the North and its people has emerged from as a result of these developments and their assessment?
SUD06. Developing an Arctic Framework for Tracking Socio-Economic Change through Internet Connectivity
Victoria Herrmann (The Arctic Institute, Washington DC)
Mieke Coppes (Polar Research and Policy Initiative)
Over the past several years, there has been considerable investment, research, and implementation of broadband internet in the Arctic region, perhaps best showcased at the Arctic Boradband Forum in May 2017 at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Broadband will address critical needs for Arctic communities to support a diversified economy, education, public safety, and healthcare services. And yet, while there has been much progress over the past several years in physically connecting remote areas of the Arctic, there has been less movement on developing an evaluation matrix to benchmark and track the socio-economic improvements, or lack thereof, that come with connectivity. This session seeks to address that need by inviting presenters to share research, ideas, and case studies on tracking Arctic connectivity. Specifically, this session will seek to answer:
We invite researchers from all disciplines, educators, community champions, financiers, industry, and government officials from across the region to join our session for a set of presentations and multidisciplinary dialogue on creating metrics for measurement of tracking connectivity's benefits. The intent of this session is to create a whitepaper for circulation and the potential of a special peer-review journal issue, which will be open to everyone but will focus on submissions from early career scholars and Indigenous participants.
SUD07. Sustainable Development in the Arctic - Other
COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH/KNOWLEDGE CO-PRODUCTION/INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE
CBIK01. A Focused Look at Traditional Knowledge Integration in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Patrick Gruben (Inuvialuit Game Council)
Larry Carpenter (Wildlife Management Advisory Council (NWT))
Vic Gillman (Fisheries Joint Management Committee)
The Inuvialuit enjoy a special relationship with the land and water around them and from that relationship have fostered an invaluable base of Traditional Knowledge (TK). While its importance and utility is acknowledged, it has often proven a challenge at times to incorporate Traditional Knowledge (TK) into wildlife management decision-making. Since the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) in 1984, the Inuvialuit and government agencies have expended considerable effort to make the co-management process brought into being by the IFA work. The Inuvialuit approach to sustainable development and environmental management is rooted in the recognition of the role of both TK and science in decision-making. It is with the understanding that through the integration of TK into management practices for wildlife conservation, that a greater sense of empowerment and ownership of a decision is created on a community and regional level. Drawing from over 30 years of co-management experience, This session would aim to bring together all participants in the Inuvialuit co-management process from the community to the national level on their perspectives to discuss challenges, successes and share lessons learned. This exploration of different methods and formats used to bring TK into decision-making and policy, as well as some evaluation of their efficacy will be a valuable learning experience for anyone involved in co-management and working with indigenous peoples. By focusing on the Inuvialuit co-management process, this session will provide a unique, crosscutting view of the dynamic and lively discussion of how TK can be integrated under the bodies and processes developed under the IFA.
CBIK02. Because it's 2017. Research by and with Circumpolar Indigenous Peoples - Exploring Innovative Leadership and Approaches
Pitseolalaq Moss-Davies (Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada)
Tom Sheldon (Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada))
Arctic research has commonly been carried out to address the national interests of Arctic nations such as Canada, the USA, Denmark, and Russia. A diverse array of research topics have been pursued, mostly driven by academia and governments, including through numerous international partnerships. Recently, a primary focus has been to study climate change and the role of the Arctic region as a driver of change globally. University and government scientists as well as Inuit organizations have documented the extent and intensity of land and ocean use by Inuit and their detailed knowledge of the environment, including, but not limited to, animal behaviour and biology, particularly of harvested species. Approximately 160,000 Inuit spanning across the four countries of Russia, the United States, Canada, and Greenland are represented through the Inuit Circumpolar Council, while Inuit are amongst approximately 400,000 Arctic Indigenous peoples across the eight nation states that comprise the Arctic Council. Not only do Indigenous peoples who are separated by national boundaries share family, cultural, and historic ties, but they also rely on the same ecosystems as neighbouring Indigenous communities - Inuit in Greenland and the Baffin region of Nunavut are a specific example of this. From a scientific research perspective, the eight nations of the Arctic Council have now formally recognized the importance of relationships across international boundaries - this is reflected in the binding Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation, signed at the Fairbanks Arctic Council Ministerial meeting, on May 11, 2017. It is against this long-standing Indigenous reality across international boundaries and the newly developed scientific cooperation landscape that we explore innovative leadership and approaches to research across Indigenous territories. Indigenous-led or co-led research is now being emphasized as a means to equip Indigenous communities and society to address the numerous crises and issues affecting Indigenous communities in their respective regions. Researchers, Indigenous organizations, and decision-makers are invited to submit proposals to this session to showcase innovative Indigenous-led or co-led research that is emerging internationally, how it has been achieved, as well as the anticipated and actual outcomes that allow for shared Indigenous priorities to be addressed and equity to be achieved.
CBIK03. Arctic Change as Seen Through the Eyes of Indigenous Guardians
Trevor Bell (Memorial University of Newfoundland)
Michelle Slaney (Memorial University of Newfoundland / Future Earth Coasts))
This session is intended to explore not only the changes witnessed by Indigenous Guardians (land observers), but how these observations are assembled, recorded and used in local decision-making. Within Canada, there is a growing number of community-to-regional scale observations or 'watchmen' programs, whereby Indigenous peoples monitor and document change in order to better manage and protect their waters, lands and territories. Different regions/communities have adopted different decision-making processes and practices, some of which emphasize Indigenous Knowledge, some combine both IK and scientific data, while others adopt multiple ways of knowing within a geospatial framework. Bringing together Indigenous Guardians and stewards with different perspectives on Arctic change and approaches to observing and documenting such changes will provide an opportunity to share practices and provide valuable insights on decision-making frameworks that incorporate multiple ways of knowing.
CBIK04. Co-Producing Knowledge of Wildlife Important for Subsistence in a Changing Climate
Sonja Ostertag (Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Lisa Loseto (Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada))
Tristan Pearce (University of the Sunshine Coast)
This session focuses on the co-production of knowledge of arctic wildlife important for subsistence and its role in co-management. Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid change due to climate change and other environment and human-driven forces. These changes have implications for arctic wildlife, and in turn, resource (co)-management Boards for many species that Inuit depend on for subsistence. Local and traditional knowledge and observations often provide longitudinal and holistic knowledge of arctic wildlife. More recent wildlife monitoring and assessments offer additional species-by-species knowledge. Building understanding of complex problems like climate change impacts in the Arctic requires collaborative research including the integration of multiple ways of knowing, which can result in the formation of "communities of learning" for the co-production of knowledge. Knowledge co-production refers to the "collaborative process of bringing a plurality of knowledge sources and types together to address a defined problem and build an integrated or systems-oriented understanding of the problem" (Armitage et al. 2011). Overall, knowledge co-production and the social learning that it entails have relevance for natural resource management, conservation, and human adaptation in the Arctic. This session welcomes papers that focus on an aspect of knowledge co-production of arctic wildlife important for subsistence. Papers should describe the process (opportunities, challenges, future directions) of knowledge co-production including the documentation and integration of Inuit local and traditional knowledge and observations in natural resource management, conservation and/or adaptation decision-making.
CBIK05. Strong Research Communities â€“ Research Developed for and by the North
David Scott (Polar Knowledge Canada)
This session will highlight projects where northern communities played a strong role in the research process and created new knowledge for the Canadian Arctic as well as the other circumpolar regions. The importance of encouraging research projects driven and designed by northern communities, conducted with local participants, resulting in new knowledge products for communities will be highlighted. It will also be explored what northern communities can offer to the research process, such as how the co-design of research, where western science and traditional knowledge is collected together and used as equal ways of knowing, results in an innovative new type of knowledge. Successes and lessons-learned in strong community research will be discussed as a way to encourage leadership in local communities to propose and led research studies, and encourage the consideration of traditional knowledge and western science into new ways of knowing.Â Â
CBIK06. Community-Based Research as a Circum-Arctic Strategy for Sustainable Adaptation Planning
Louis-Philippe Roy (Northern Climate Exchange, Yukon Research Center, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada)
Alevtina Evgrafova (University of Bern, Faculty of Science, Bern, Switzerland)
Elena Kuznetsova (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway)
Sustainable adaptation planning is a priority for northern regions facing the impacts of climate change in the context of resource development and rapid social transformation. However, establishing a baseline understanding of environmental systems in the face of ongoing climate change is a challenge to researchers in Arctic and Subarctic regions. To understand and develop plans for adapting to future climate change impacts, we must monitor elements of the environment, particularly those of importance to Northerners, who are observing and living through change. Community-based research is being embraced as a tool to both better understand change and identify adaptations, while engaging communities in the research process and outcomes. Combining scientific and traditional knowledge is critical to understand, respond to, and adapt to the changes in the Arctic. However, creating a bridge between natural and social science researchers, engineers, policy-makers and traditional knowledge holders in northern communities can be challenging. For these reasons, this session aims to focus on community-based projects throughout communities across the circum-Arctic regions in order to learn from Arctic researchers, engineers, policy-makers and community members, as well as to define key findings from interdisciplinary Arctic research, in particular research bridging scientific and traditional knowledge.Â Â
CBIK07. Iqqaumajauninga - á