List of Topical Sessions
MAR01. Arctic Marine Benthic Ecosystems: From Local to Pan-Arctic Scales
Philippe Archambault (Université Laval)
Dieter Piepenburg (Alfred Wegener Institute)
Kathleen MacGregor (Université Laval)
Benthic ecosystems are strongly influenced by the undergoing changes in sea ice condition from local to pan-Arctic scale. Given that ice dynamics in the Arctic are changing rapidly as the climate warms, an understanding both of the current state of shallow to deep marine benthic ecosystems and also of how these areas will be impacted is critical. The consequence of these changes is largely unknown for the coupling between pelagic and benthic ecosystems, the food web, for the biodiversity and functioning of the ecosystems. In this session, we encourage contributions that explore how the benthic habitats of the Arctic will be affected by global changes through the description of species interactions or communities, benthic community structure and function, benthic oxygen consumption, and all processes related to pelagic-benthic coupling across the shallow, shelves, slopes, and basins of the Arctic Ocean from local to pan-Arctic.
MAR02. Arctic Marine Mammals
Lisa Loseto (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Steve Ferguson (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Arctic marine ecosystems are undergoing rapid change due to climate forcing, with many documented, as well other likely unknown consequences for marine mammals. Impacts include shifts in migration routes and phenology, habitat use, and predator-prey interactions including redistributions of marine mammal prey (e.g., Arctic cod) and predators (e.g., killer whales). Such ecological shifts may also exacerbate the risks to marine mammals posed by other stressors, such as exposures to environmental contaminants, plastics debris, parasites, and pathogens, ultimately impacting individual and population health. An increasingly warm Arctic also translates into increasing human use in a biome that has long been difficult to access. In this session, we aim to provide a platform for a broad range of studies highlighting how ecological changes are impacting pinnipeds, cetaceans, and polar bears across the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic Seas. We encourage works relating such ecological changes to climate forcing, investigations highlighting novel species interactions, and those testing linkages to other key interacting environmental stressors that may exert adverse impacts on Arctic marine mammal populations. Studies integrating biological and physical sciences across spatial and temporal scales, both empirical- and model-based, and those incorporating local knowledge or new technologies, are welcome.
MAR03. Climate Change Impacts on the Arctic Ocean on Multiple Scales in Space and Time
Will Perrie (DFO, Bedford Institute of Oceanography)
David Atkinson (University of Victoria)
The focus is regional scales like the Beaufort Sea, Barents Sea, etc., and also extends to the broader scales like the entire Arctic Ocean. Time scales are from seasonal to decadal. Included topics might be: (a) Seasonal time scales, for example, estimates of September ice conditions and links to preceding winter and early spring atmosphere or ocean conditions. (b) The impacts of climate change on Arctic storms and their impacts and feedbacks on the upper Arctic Ocean. (c) The role of inertial gravity waves, mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies and related processes on mixed layer depths, vertical mixing, and on the ice edge etc. (d) Estimates of climate and climate change on longer time scales, up to the next several decades, e.g. following IPCC scenarios.
MAR04. Fisheries, Fishes, and Their Ecosystems in a Changing Arctic
Maxime Geoffroy (Fisheries and Marine Institute, Memorial University of Newfoundland)
Dominique Robert (Université du Québec à Rimouski)
Andrew Majewski (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
As the sea-ice cover recedes and water temperatures increase, the abundance of fishes of Atlantic and Pacific origins
is rapidly increasing in Arctic seas. Boreal pelagic species like capelin (Mallosus villosus), herring (Clupea harengus), sand lance (Ammodytes
spp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are increasingly present in the southern Arctic regions, which may lead to the displacement of Arctic
endogenous species and modify local food webs. Higher productivity and access to new fisheries grounds have led to increased fishing activity
in the Arctic over the past decade. While this increase is in part related to the northward range expansion of commercially-important
sub-Arctic fish stocks, for instance pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Bering Sea and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Barents Sea,
Baffin Bay/Davis Strait commercial fisheries mainly target the endogenous Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and Northern shrimp
(Pandalus borealis). However, these established commercial as well as subsistence Arctic fishing activities may be constrained by warming
waters and are expected to move northward, with potential economic and cultural impacts for northern communities. Important knowledge gaps on
fish populations and ecology persist and have led to fishing moratoriums in the Beaufort Sea and the Central Arctic Ocean. In most of the high
Arctic, the ubiquitous Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) dominates the pelagic fish assemblage. Despite the ecological importance of this key
species for higher predators, it is still unclear how the combined effect of longer-ice free seasons, warmer temperatures and increased
competition from boreal species will impact Arctic cod and its ecosystem. Moreover, little is known on the dynamics of boreal species in the
low temperatures, seasonal ice-cover and low irradiance prevailing during the Arctic winter. Addressing these knowledge gaps is critical to
inform science-based management and ensure the sustainability of existing and emerging fisheries in the Arctic.
This topical session seeks to advance our understanding of present and future responses of both commercially and non-commercially harvested fish to climate change. We encourage contributions that broadly focus on the ecology of fish species that are likely to undergo distribution changes in the Arctic, as well as on existing and emerging commercial and subsistence fisheries issues.
MAR05. Icebergs and Ice Islands: Calving, Drift and Decay Processes
Wesley Van Wychen (Defence Research and Development Canada)
Derek Mueller (Carleton University)
The presence of icebergs and ice islands can pose significant threats to marine infrastructure; including oil drilling platforms and Arctic shipping. Icebergs are also known to influence the physical, chemical and biological characteristics in the surrounding ocean. As such, quantifying the calving, drift and decay of these glacial ice hazards is of paramount importance for risk management for infrastructure but also to understand their impact on the marine environment at local and regional scales. Accurate positional estimates of glacial ice hazards in the open ocean can also aid in the development of automated detection algorithms using satellite imagery and have the potential to improve iceberg and ice island population estimates that seed drift models.
In this session, we solicit presentations that focus on all aspects of the iceberg and ice island lifecycle, from genesis at the calving front to break-up and melting as they drift in the ocean. In particular, we encourage studies that utilize a wide array of methods and datasets, including in situ observations, remote sensing and modelling.
MAR06. Mapping Twenty Thousand Years of Arctic Marine Change: Deglaciation to Present
Mark Furze (MacEwan University and The University Centre in Svalbard)
Jean-Carlos Montero-Serrano (Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski)
Anna Pieńkowski (MacEwan University)
As the North undergoes unprecedented environmental change, understanding the longer-term evolution of marine Arctic Canada from deglaciation in the Late Pleistocene through to the modern environments of the Holocene and Anthropocene has become essential. Detailed mapping of the marine channels using seismics and multibeam provides vital information for geohazard assessments and navigation. However, when coupled with the fields of sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and micropaleontology, it can provide important baseline environmental data on topics such as long-term sea ice evolution, ice-rafting, sea-level, ocean circulation, and sediment transport. These environmental histories from deglaciation to present allow us to place modern environmental changes in perspective. Further, reconstructions of the dramatic changes in oceanography and glaciation that the Arctic has been witness to provide essential analogues for anticipated future change. This interdisciplinary session thus seeks to bring together mappers, geologists, paleontologists, paleoceanographers, geochemists, and others to explore the Late Quaternary evolution of marine Arctic Canada, showcasing our latest knowledge, drawing important linkages between marine and terrestrial records, and providing a vital context for understanding the changing physical environment that underlies the entire Arctic ecosystem. Presentations by students at all levels are strongly encouraged.
MAR07. Natural Laboratories as a Tool for Predicting Ecosystem Response to Future Arctic Change
Victoria Peck (British Antarctic Survey)
Gerald Darnis (Université Laval)
The impacts of climate change are more pronounced in the Arctic than most of the world. Arctic waters are undergoing some of the fastest rates of warming, sea ice loss and acidification, severely testing the ability of marine ecosystems to respond and adapt. As Arctic ecosystems are characterized by low biodiversity and simple food webs, vulnerability in just a few species may have cascading effects. Taking the example of ocean acidification, certain locations in the Arctic exhibit more advanced conditions, already experiencing under-saturation with respect to aragonite through the whole year. Locations such as these can serve as experimental analogues for more widespread acidification of the Arctic in coming years. Studying Arctic ecosystems within areas exhibiting more advanced stages of climate change impact provides a unique opportunity to assess biological responses at a molecular, species and whole ecosystem level. In this session, we aim to provide a platform for a broad range of studies highlighting how climate change is impacting marine ecosystems across the Arctic. We particularly encourage contributions from studies which focus on areas where the current level of anthropogenic and/or environmental stress can be considered analogues for more widespread areas of the Arctic in the future. Studies ranging from the molecular through to ecosystem scale are welcome. Studies integrating biological and physical sciences across spatial and temporal scales, both empirical- and model-based are also welcome.
MAR08. The Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region
Lauren Candlish (Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba)
Zou Zou Kuzyk (Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba)
The Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region comprising Hudson Bay, James Bay, Foxe Basin, Hudson Strait and extending into Ungava Bay-occupies an area of 1.3 million km2. The region experiences nearly complete sea ice cover between November and June and becomes ice-free each summer. A massive amount of freshwater enters the Marine Region from its large watershed, which covers a third of the Canadian landmass. Because of the large spatial extent of the Marine Region, the ecosystem and food webs are broad and varied, with both year-round presence and seasonal abundances of fish, birds, and marine mammals.
This session is intended to build on recent momentum bringing together researchers, communities, government and industry partners working in the Hudson Bay marine region. This session will showcase the current and ongoing research and collaboration within the Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region. Talks are welcomed from communities, academics, industry and government on any topic related to the marine region of Hudson Bay and James Bay including traditional knowledge, oceanography, ecology, cumulative impacts and policy development.
TER01. Arctic Ecosystems and Wildlife
Jesper Bruun Mosbacher (University of Calgary)
Jean-Pierre Desforges (Aarhus University)
Generic session – no description available.
TER02. Arctic Freshwater Systems
Yohanna Klanten (Université Laval)
João Canário (Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, ULisboa)
Warwick F. Vincent (Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval)
Diogo Folhas (Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, ULisboa)
Generic session – no description available.
TER03. Biogeochemical Processes in Permafrost Thaw Lakes
João Canário (Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, ULisboa)
Warwick F. Vincent (Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval)
Diogo Folhas (Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, ULisboa)
Permafrost thaw lakes are one of the most common features resulted from permafrost thaw and degradation in the circumpolar North. They are known to be strong emitters of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, especially methane, which has the potential to have a strong feedback effect on climate. There has been an increasing level of attention over the last few years to understanding the role of thaw waters in converting natural organic matter to greenhouse gases, with complementary research on related topics including oxygen and nutrient dynamics, microbial biodiversity and abundance, and trace-element biogeochemistry and fate in these waters. To better understand complex thaw lake systems and their downstream impacts other arctic ecosystems, integrated biogeochemical studies are urgently needed. This session aims to present new advances in understanding about biogeochemical and microbial processes in permafrost thaw lakes, and in the evaluation of their future responses to climate change. Topics in this session will cover environmental chemistry, including the composition and reactivity of organic matter, thaw lake microbiomes and their influence on processes such as biogeochemical processes and contaminant speciation, and inter-site comparisons of thaw lake geomorphology and function.
TER04. Coastal Dynamics in a Changing Climate
Dustin Whalen (Natural Resources Canada)
Hugues Lantuit (Alfred Wegener Institute and University of Potsdam)
Ongoing research has indicated that the coastal erosion of ice-rich permafrost terrain has dramatically increased in the last 2 decades. Environmental factors such as warming temperatures, declining sea ice, and increased forcing events are the main drivers for this change. These unprecedented drivers will have a significant impact on the infrastructure, communities, and vulnerable Arctic ecosystems both on land, along the coast, and in the nearshore environment. The aim of this session is to bring together researchers who are studying these dramatic coastal and nearshore changes across the Arctic and who will ultimately provide critical information to support future planning, mitigation and adaptation measures of these changing permafrost coastal landscapes.
TER05. From Causes to Consequences: Understanding Permafrost Dynamics and Their Influence on Ecosystems and Communities Canadian Permafrost Association
Ashley Rudy (Cold Regions Research Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University)
Antoni Lewkowicz (University of Ottawa)
Carolyn Gibson (Guelph University)
Anne-Marie LeBlanc (Natural Resources Canada)
In northern Canada, permafrost is an integral part of the landscape and plays a central role in ecosystem dynamics and on human health at local and global scales. Changing permafrost conditions alter both the structure/function of northern ecosystems and can have a significant impact on the health of northern communities. The causes and consequences of permafrost thaw are complex and interconnected. An integrated, trans-disciplinary, approach is needed to understand the drivers of permafrost thaw, and the risks to ecosystems and communities. The goal of the newly formed Canadian Permafrost Association is to bring communities, researchers and practitioners together to advance knowledge and awareness of changing permafrost environments. In this session we aim to promote knowledge exchange among researchers from a variety of disciplines to better understand the patterns, processes, time scales, hazards and consequences of permafrost thaw on the earth system. This session seeks contributions on all relevant permafrost topics, including ground thermal conditions, thermokarst processes, engineering, terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical cycling, ecology, community research, food security, economics and policy implications.
TER06. Functions of the Arctic Tundra Ecosystem Under Rapid Environmental Change
Vincent Maire (Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières)
Masaki Uchida (National Institute of Polar Research)
Esther Lévesque (Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières)
Arctic tundra ecosystems are experiencing rapid environmental changes, including temperature and strong hydrological change. This session will focus about the impact of these environmental changes on the multiple ecosystem functions (productivity, soil C cycle and storage and decomposition of soil organic matter and so on) of the Arctic tundra. This session also wishes to share the scientific knowledge to Northerners.
TER07. Glacier Changes: Spatial and Temporal Variability
Laura Thomson (Queen’s University)
Luke Copland (University of Ottawa)
Variability in glacier dynamics, mass balance and extent can occur on multiple timescales (e.g. hourly, diurnal, seasonal, multi-annual periods) and can vary spatially at glacier, ice cap and regional scales. Quantifying glacier change across these multiple scales is essential for refining the current understanding of how glaciers are likely to evolve in a changing climate. Further, quantifying dynamic variability at multiple scales helps refine current ice discharge estimates and can be used to improve models of ice flow used to project future global sea level rise contributions. Here, we invite presentations that investigate glacier change on multiple temporal and spatial scales and that utilize a broad set of methods, including in situ and remote sensing observations to derive results.
TER08. Macro and Micro Parasite-omes in the Arctic: Understanding Complex Ecological Interactions from Hosts to Ecosystems
Susan Kutz (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary)
Oscar Aleuy Young (University of Calgary)
Climate change is driving shifting distributions and phenologies of a broad range of species, including macro and microparasites in the Arctic. Parasites represent at least half of the species diversity in the world and are capable of regulating host density, shaping food webs, and even modifying host behaviour. As such, changes in parasite diversity and distribution can have direct implications for public health, the food industry, conservation biology and ecosystem functioning. An emerging concept in the field of host-parasite dynamics considers the host as a fully interactive system (or biome) where ecological interactions, such as competition, commensalism, and symbiosis, occur among helminths, protozoans, bacteria and viruses. Understanding the interactions among, the macro and micro-biome, hosts, and the environment is the pathway to unveil a wide variety of mechanisms for disease dynamics and emergence. The relatively low biological diversity and more simple animal communities in Arctic ecosystems compared with temperate and a tropical region is ideal for the study of complex host-parasite interactions. In addition, the unprecedented rate of climate change occurring in high latitudes is already causing alterations in host range and behaviour, migratory patterns and disease emergence highlighting the urgency of integrative research in the area.
The main objective of this session is to increase our understanding about complex host-pathogen, and pathogen-pathogen interactions in changing Arctic ecosystems. We invite submissions in the areas of: diversity, distribution, and interactions of micro and macroparasites in wildlife and people, linkages and cycling of macro and microparasites among host species in the Arctic, stress and the macro and micro-biome, parasite dynamics and seasonality, migration, and climate change. We anticipate this session will be of interest to those concerned with wildlife conservation and management, public health, food safety and security, ecosystem health and sustainable Arctic communities.
TER10. United Nations Environmental Program Rapid Response Assessment on Coastal Permafrost
Scott Dallimore (Geological Survey of Canada)
Christopher Burn (Carleton University)
Pippa Seccombe-Hett (Aurora Research Institute)
The United Nations Environmental Program and GRID Arendal are undertaking a Rapid Response Assessment (RRA) project to assess the state of knowledge on coastal permafrost, identify knowledge gaps and recommend a path forward for the global community to address these gaps. The coastal permafrost RRA will consider the unique processes and interconnections across the permafrost environments on land, at the coast, and offshore. The focus will be on the western Arctic of North America where the sea level is rising and sensitive coastal areas are underlain by unconsolidated, ice-rich sediments with extensive occurrences of offshore permafrost. The similarity of the geology in this area to that in northern Siberia and elsewhere will allow extension of the findings to other parts of the Arctic. The RRA will include contributions from discipline experts, northerners and Indigenous groups. Within the context of a warming Arctic, we expect to assess a range of permafrost considerations that relate to environmental issues, geotechnical engineering and assessment of coastal geohazards.
The RRA was launched in May 2018 and will be completed within a year. A special session at the 2018 ArcticNet meeting is proposed as an opportunity to present our vision for the RRA and seek input from science community, northerners and policy makers. If possible, it would be very helpful to design a session which offered an opportunity for several invited talks, some short talks from the general audience and a chaired discussion period.
INUIT HEALTH, EDUCATION AND ADAPTATION
IHEA01. Addressing Arctic Housing Challenges
Carsen Banister (National Research Council Canada)
William Semple (NORDEC Consulting and Design)
Culturally-appropriate healthy housing, of acceptable quality and performance in the Arctic, continues to be a significant challenge. In addition, the problems, which are often the result of a combination of social, financial, logistical, environmental, and technical issues and realities, are exacerbated by the severe climate, remoteness, the lack of locally available materials, and the ongoing need for capacity building. Add to this a lack of catalogued, readily-available information on which to base decisions, and it begins to become evident why improvements to the situation requires a considerable amount of effort, co-ordination, dedication, and funding.
This session will focus on presentations focused on identification and resolution of barriers towards addressing the housing crisis in the Arctic from the perspective of cultural, social, financial, logistical, environmental, and technical challenges.
IHEA02. Arctic Contaminants: Emerging Concerns
Emma Pike (Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada)
Eva Kruemmel (Inuit Circumpolar Council)
Jean Allen (Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada)
While much has been accomplished in the field of Arctic contaminants science, new insights and discoveries are still being made every year. This is because the Arctic is a receiving environment for global pollutants including mercury, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and recently detected chemicals of emerging concern including microplastics. New findings are essential to ensuring that the Stockholm and Minamata Conventions, which aim to protect human health and the environment from harmful chemicals, are effectively implemented and adapted to our evolving understanding of Arctic contaminants science. Programs like the Northern Contaminants Program and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme have addressed these challenges for over 25 years. Chemicals of emerging Arctic concern are being assessed, e.g. plastics and microplastics. Global action will be needed either through existing agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention, or via different measures altogether.
Multidisciplinary research into Arctic contaminants is leading to a greater global understanding of ecosystems and human health risks, toxic effects, interactions with other environmental stressors such as climate change, public health advice, how to address questions and concerns of concerned communities, and how Indigenous knowledge works alongside western science in the co-development of knowledge.
This session will highlight recent advances made in the field of arctic contaminants research, and recommendations to enhance risk management measures and communication initiatives. Presenters will share emerging views and concerns through research and observations from the various disciplines. This session will inspire new ideas on knowledge gaps and how best to advance our shared vision of a clean and sustainable Arctic environment.
IHEA03. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in the Arctic Regions
Tristian Pearce (University of Sunshine Coast)
James Ford (Priestley International Centre for Climate, University of Leeds)
The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of research examining the human dimensions of climate change in the north. Increasingly, this scholarship is examining how climate change interacts with society, documenting impacts, adaptations, and vulnerabilities, and exploring opportunities for policy intervention. Research points to a number of challenges for Arctic communities including access to resources important for subsistence, a shifting resource base, and traditional livelihoods under stress. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related risks, directs attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability, and emphasizes the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Arctic regions is slowly emerging, building upon the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and research which has examined what makes communities vulnerable and resilient to the impacts of climate change.
This session welcomes papers that focus on the human dimensions of climate change in the Arctic. In particular, we are interested in papers that advance understanding of human adaptation to climate change - (e.g. empirically, methodologically, theoretically), engage with multiple types of knowledge (western science, traditional knowledge) and help us understand how peoples across the Arctic Regions continue to experience and respond to climate change.
IHEA04. Empowering Northern Communities to Respond to Climate Change Impacts
Miki Ehrlich (Northwest Territories Association of Communities)
Ben Linaker (Indigenous Services Canada)
Donna Sinnett (Crown and Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs)
Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs (CIRNAC) and Indigenous Services Canada (ISC) have teamed up to implement a new approach to support communities in adapting to climate change impacts across northern Canada. Through the Climate Change Preparedness in the North (CCPN) and Climate Change Health Adaptation (CCHAP) programs, a new regional/territorial-based governance approach has been rolled out in the three territories, Nunavik and Nunatsiavut to establish a mechanism for stakeholders and climate change knowledge holders from each jurisdiction to provide funding recommendations to CCPN and CCHAP on projects that are important for their regions.
The objectives of the session are to revisit the first year of this new governance structure, and to present a regional perspective of climate change adaptation across the North through the presentation of projects implemented in the five northern jurisdictions. The plan for this governance structure was presented last year at ArcticNet in Quebec. This year's session will highlight the lessons learned during the first year of implementation and will draw attention to regional considerations that influence governance structures and adaptation projects. Northern communities are working to ensure that their needs and priorities direct research and projects being undertaken in their communities. Through a discussion of the projects recommended by these newly created regional governance bodies, insights on how different projects are perceived by regional stakeholders and communities will be shared. The session will be beneficial for researchers working in the North, community and regional organizations, and other funding programs.
IHEA05. From Environmental Monitoring and Stewardship to a Dialogue About Training, Education and Knowledge Mobilization in Nunangat
Jackie Kidd (Arctic Eider Society)
Vincent L’Hérault (ARCTIConnexion)
Shirley Tagalik (Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre) Jrène Rahm
This session will focus on Inuit-governed education programs tied to environmental monitoring and stewardship. A variety of curriculum development has emerged from these projects that are place-based, and directly address youth training and knowledge mobilization in the Arctic. Responding to community concerns, presentations are invited on research and stewardship programs raising awareness through education. This session hopes to discuss the successes, challenges and implications with the projects, both locally as well as on a global stage.
Submissions are welcome that contribute to knowledge mobilization ranging from Water Quality Monitoring in Pond Inlet (ARCTIConnexion), to Young Hunters Programs (Arviat Wellness), to Environmental Monitoring in communities around Hudson Bay and the Core Environmental Science Curriculum development in conjunction with Kativik Ilisarniliriniq in Nunavik (Arctic Eider), and the extensive work bringing place, culture, health and environment together by the Labrador Institute, to name some examples.
This session hopes to engage in dialogue around models for indigenous education and life-long learning that are deeply rooted in Inuit ways (IQ) and support the growth and future contributions of Nunangat's youth. It will also hopes to explore the indigenous framing of education including knowledge mobilization, what that looks like, how it will be used, and how to ensure its nourishment throughout educational careers.
IHEA06. Accessibility to Education in the North and Inuit Experiences in Post-Secondary Education
Witold Kinsner (University of Manitoba)
Randy Herrmann (University of Manitoba)
Alyssa Flaherty-Spence (Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami)
Elise Ho-Foong (Savanta Inc.)
Schools are where we educate and shape our children - the next generation of contributors to this world. However, since education is not delivered to children by their school teachers only, but also by their parents, families and friends capable of passing their experience, knowledge and wisdom, education applies to all life stages and to all environments.
Education and training in Northern communities have been a challenge under the best of circumstances. It is often marked by low school enrollments, poor school performance, low literacy rates, and high dropout rates. Governments have been helping to improve the educational system through modernization of infrastructure, as well as delivery mechanisms of the necessary educational material and networking.
A deeper dialogue should be developed to address educational challenges in the North. Indigenous peoples have educated their youth through traditional non-school means, including: demonstration, group socialization, participation in cultural and spiritual rituals, skill development and oral teachings. New creative thinking, open conversation, and a willingness to explore new solutions must be the new direction to bring about relevant solutions. Programs that include face-to-face and online teaching/learning, with a hands-on approach that emphasizes direct experience and learning through inclusion, can augment the school model.
Topics addressing the issues include:
IHEA07. Meeting the Challenge – Understanding and Taking Action to Promote Food Security in the Arctic
Chris Furgal (Trent University)
Sonia Wesche (University of Ottawa)
James Ford (Priestley International Centre for Climate, University of Leeds)
Food insecurity in Arctic communities is influenced by a complex series of factors at various levels and has reached 'crisis' status in some regions. This session invites presentations from researchers, policy and decision makers and program providers working to understand and/or take action to improve food security in the North, at any scale. From institutions, to communities, to regions and Territories, significant efforts are being made in research, policy development and program intervention to better understand and address this urgent public health priority. This session will provide an opportunity for those working on various aspects of this issue to share their findings and discuss what we understand, what we still need to explore, what efforts are being made and what appears to be making a difference in improving access to safe and healthy food for all in the Arctic.
IHEA09. One Health in the North
Emily Jenkins (University of Saskatchewan)
Patrick Leighton (Université de Montréal)
In this session, we will focus on food and water safety and security, and issues at the human/animal/environmental interface in the North. This includes, but is not limited to, environmental and ecological determinants of health, emerging disease, sustainable wildlife populations, food security, and contaminants and pathogens that circulate among people, animals, and the environment. As One Health is by nature highly collaborative and requires diverse skill sets and perspectives, we anticipate participants from a broad range of disciplines, such as wildlife biology, veterinary medicine, human health, toxicology, and environmental sciences, as well as transdisciplinary participants including policy makers and community members. Presenters will be encouraged to translate their science for this broader audience.
IHEA10. The Arctic Inspiration Prize: An Exploration of Grassroots Northern Innovation
Katie Blasco (Arctic Inspiration Prize)
Jason Annahatak (Arctic Inspiration Prize)
As the largest annual prize in Canada with a specific focus on the Arctic, the Arctic Inspiration Prize (AIP) encourages, enables and celebrates the inspiring achievements of the people of the North. The AIP is owned and governed by the northern-led AIP Charitable Trust and supported by a network of people and groups, including Indigenous organizations, academia, governments, non-governmental organizations, industry, philanthropy, media, and arts and culture organizations, who share a common goal: to recognize northern innovation and excellence and encourage teamwork for the betterment of life in Canada's North. The prize was established in 2012 by Arnold Witzig and Sima Sharifi in collaboration with ArcticNet and has since awarded over $8.4 million to 22 diverse teams, supporting innovative projects in the fields of education, sustainable housing, health, performing arts, traditional knowledge, language, and science. The AIP awards up to $3 million annually, shared by up to 10 winning teams in three prize categories. One $1 million prize may be awarded to one exceptional team, up to four teams are awarded up to $500,000 each, and up to seven teams with members 30 years of age or younger are awarded up to $100,000 each. The Youth prize category seeks to inspire the next generations of Arctic innovators to develop projects and plans that address issues and opportunities relevant to them. This session will focus on the innovative projects and remarkable achievements of the AIP's laureates from Yukon to Nunatsiavut.
IHEA12. Vulnerabilities, Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern/Arctic Environments
Robert Siron (Ouranos)
Stéphanie Bleau (Ouranos)
Canada's North is already experiencing climate change and it will be one of the most impacted regions in the world, with major consequences on northern ecosystems, local communities and their cultural and traditional heritage. In this context, it's important to document and understand climate change impacts, and identify environmental, social and economic vulnerabilities in order to come up with pertinent, appropriate and sustainable solutions for the North to adapt to this changing environment. The objective of this session is to bring together scientists from various disciplines who have conducted integrated research projects, i.e. combining climate science (e.g. using climate change scenarios) and studies on vulnerabilities, impacts and adaptation to address climate change issues and meet the needs of end-users, governments, policy-makers and northern communities. Recent research projects carried out to address Quebec's northern issues and supported by Ouranos' Northern Environment Program will be presented as examples, however this session seeks to gather research and experiences on a variety of issues and from various places to share approaches, best practices and lessons learned in the process of moving from climate science and local knowledge to adaptation actions.
NORTHERN POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
POL01. Arctic Data Management, Access and Interoperability: Advances in National and International Programs and Initiatives
Maribeth Murray (Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary)
Peter Pulsifer (National Snow and Data Center, University of Colorado)
David Arthurs (Polar View)
Arctic data infrastructure has the potential to transform our ability to address critical scientific and operational questions, and meet Indigenous, academic, government, service provider and private sector needs for data-driven knowledge from the north. Over the past decade we have seen a dramatic change in the way in which people think about and use data infrastructure; open source software, user-centered design, technical and human interoperability, ethically-open access and availability, and "value-added" are now common parlance. Data infrastructure is a means by which we can support and grow an Arctic data community that includes Inuit, other Indigenous peoples; that enhances individual, local, regional, national and international initiatives; and that builds capacity across communities, organizations and institutions. In this session, we invite papers that address the multi-faceted nature of Arctic data infrastructure today - from the design phase to the knowledge transfer phase, and everything in between. Contributions that reflect the technical and/or human aspects of Arctic data management, access and interoperability are both welcome.
Key issues to address in this session include:
POL03. Arctic Governance and the Private Sector: Challenges and Opportunities
Mathieu Landriault (University of Ottawa)
Pierre-Louis Têtu (University of Ottawa)
Global warming renders more accessible the Arctic region to human activity. This reality opened to door to diverse actors, including non-Arctic states, non-governmental organizations, Aboriginal groups, and companies. These emerging players are incorporated in Arctic governance structures, facing both limitations to their influence and opportunities to contribute to governance structures.
In itself, this phenomenon fits perfectly with the concept of governance as it refers to a decision-making environment characterized by a multiplicity of stakeholders of different nature. Governance makes decision-making and implementation more fluid and dynamic as the level of control and predictability is reduced: coordination is the keyword to describe the interactions between stakeholders, even in situation where one actor dominates others (sovereign states for example).
The emergence in recent years of new Arctic forums presents us with evolving governance arrangements. The Arctic Circle summit and the Arctic economic Forum represent two such examples. The consultation that led to and the implementation of the IMO's Polar Code are further evidence of corporate involvement in the policy-making process. At the same time, little attention has been devoted so far to assess the governance structures in place inside specific businesses or economic sectors.
And yet, Arctic governance is too often studied using a state-centric focus downplaying the role and potential of the private sector in public policies. The conception, elaboration, adoption and implementation of norms allow for corporate engagement in the Arctic region.
The objective of this Session is to take stock of corporate initiatives in Arctic forums. This session welcomes abstracts outlining the limits and opportunities that companies are and will be confronted with when interacting in circumpolar governance infrastructures.
POL04. Extractive Industries and Sustainable Livelihoods in the Arctic
Thierry Rodon (Université Laval)
Stephan Schott (Carleton University)
The objective of the session is to better understand how the sustainability of arctic community livelihoods is impacted by extractive industries and how the future well-being of communities that depend on extractive industries can be enhanced. This session will gather the researchers from international research networks on extractive industries (MinErAL, REXSAC and ReSDA) and one ArcticNet project (Mining Economies, Mining Families) that conduct research on the socio-economic impacts of extractive industries on Arctic communities and try to envision a post-mining future for Arctic communities. Papers in this session will look at varying aspects of the relationship between extractive resource development and the sustainability of Arctic communities from a wide range of perspectives (political science, economy, communication, history, geography, industrial relations, business and human development, law and anthropology). The session will provide for a comparison of experiences and approaches in different regions of the Arctic.
POL05. How Forms of Alternative Tourism, Such as Ecotourism, Can Provide Sustainable Development Opportunities for Arctic Communities
Dawn R. Bazely (York University)
Lisa Rankin (Memorial University of Newfoundland)
Travel for recreational and educational purposes has been documented as far back as Ancient Egypt. The modern travel and tourism industry is one of the largest global sectors, with an estimated direct economic impact of approximately $2.3 trillion USD in 2016. Mass Tourism occurs when large numbers of tourists visit an area. Over time, if not managed appropriately, the tourist attractions at these destinations can and do become degraded, with potential negative consequences for local communities.
Tourism provides an opportunity for economic development in arctic regions. However, since travel is expensive, both to and within the Arctic, it is a costly tourism destination. Forms of Alternative Tourism, such as Ecotourism, which emphasize sustainable practices, such as minimizing environmental impacts, improving biodiversity, and empowering and engaging local peoples tend to predominate in this market.
In contrast to Mass Tourism, education is a defining characteristic of Alternative Tourism. A question of interest to researchers is whether the sustainability principles embedded in Alternative Tourism practices can influence Mass Tourism in a positive manner, so as to reduce and mitigate its negative impacts.
A warming climate portends increased opportunities for tourism in the Arctic. For example, as the Northwest Passage becomes more open, increasing numbers of cruise ships have been visiting Canada's Arctic regions, bringing with it both practical and ethical challenges for local communities and tour operators.
A related question is "how does tourism address its carbon footprint?". For example, greenhouse gas emissions from flights are a major component of person's ecological footprint. We plan to include a discussion of the stance that Ecotourism takes on this.
This session invites case studies and best practices, in particular from interdisciplinary teams engaged in the research, education, outreach and practice of Alternative Tourism, which may include Citizen Science, Public History and Art and Culture components. We will explore the concepts and questions that must be considered in order for Arctic communities to benefit from Ecotourism and other forms of Alternative Tourism in a sustainable manner.
POL06. Identifying and Improving Weather, Water, and Ice Information Services for Safe Arctic Travel
Gita Ljubicic (Carleton University)
Jackie Dawson (University of Ottawa)
More and more specialized weather and ice services are being developed by governments, companies, non-profit, and community-based organizations in order to support safe travel in changing northern environments. Some services are developed in close collaboration with the intended users of these products or services, while others are developed based on availability of new sources or data and information. There are currently a lot of national and international initiatives focused on improving weather, water, and ice information and prediction services - many of which are being unified through the World Meteorological Organization led Year of Polar Prediction. The stated goal of all of these initiatives is typically to meet the needs of users - but there has been little work done to understand who specific users are, and what their unique needs are, especially in the context of local scale information needs that are most relevant to northern re-supply and to northern communities. In an effort to learn from experiences across the Arctic and Sub-Arctic we invite contributions focused on better understanding weather, water and ice information and service needs for different user groups. Our intent with this session is to encourage more dialogue about current uses of weather/water/ice information according to region, scale, season, mode of transport, and purpose of travel. The goal of developing a more collective conversation on these issues is to learn from different regions and priorities, to develop a more networked approach to monitoring or information sharing, and to enable service providers to have a more comprehensive understanding of unique users’ needs and to support the development of more accessible, relevant, and salient weather, water, and ice information services.
POL07. Knowledge to Decision and Policy-Making: Approaches of Arctic Nations
Brendan Kelly (Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH))
Leah Braithwaite (ArcticNet)
Amy Lauren Lovecraft (University of Alaska Fairbanks)
Arctic nations share many challenges in responding to rapid change including how to best inform decision making with science? Who chooses policy-relevant research questions? How are the questions framed? What are the effective ways of communicating the results to decision and policy makers? In this session, presenters from diverse nations will describe best practices and challenges in bringing science to bear. The session will conclude with a panel discussion highlighting approaches that could enhance international understanding and scientific cooperation.
POL08. Managing the Social and Ecological Impacts of Marine Vessel Traffic in the Arctic
Natalie Carter (University of Ottawa)
William Halliday (Wildlife Conservation Society Canada and University of Victoria)
Associated with climate-driven changes, the Arctic has received significant interest in resource development, trade and tourism activities, which has led to increases in marine vessel traffic. Ship traffic in the Canadian Arctic nearly tripled between 1990 and 2015. Through expected political will, technological change, and under the right economic conditions, commercial traffic opportunities across the Arctic will expand; in particular, through the Northwest Passage of the Canadian Arctic.
Significant attention has been paid recently to understanding the evolving Arctic shipping sector, the impacts associated with an expected increase in maritime traffic in the region, and potential strategies for managing those impacts.
Abstracts touching on ways to manage or mitigate ecological and social impacts of shipping in the Arctic are invited in this session, including acoustic impacts on marine animals, concerns and strategies identified by northern communities, invasive species, oil spills, wastewater discharge, and icebreaking near migration routes or community travel routes.
POL09. UK-Canada Arctic Research Cooperation in Action: 2018 Bursary Programme
Henry Burgess (NERC Arctic Office)
Jane Francis (British Antarctic Survey)
This session will provide the opportunity for conference attendees to hear about the initial results from the 2018 UK-Canada Arctic Bursaries Programme. Abstracts will be welcomed from UK-based Bursary recipients and their Canadian research partners.
POL10. Out of the Cold: The Arctic as a Hotspot of International Politics - Canadian and European Practitioners' Perspectives
Kristin Bartenstein (Université Laval)
Daniel-Erasmus Khan (University of the Bundeswehr)
Why does the Arctic matter? Where are we right now and where do we go from here? – These are the questions panellists will be asked to address. The discussion will bring together high-level practitioners of the realm of international affairs from Canada, Germany and the EU to give voice to different perspectives on Arctic governance. In the international arena, consensus may prevail that climate change wreaks havoc on the fragile Arctic ecosystems, that economic development should serve Arctic communities and not further harm the environment and that the existing legal framework needs to be further developed to respond to new challenges. However, on a number of other specific Arctic issues, diverging agendas may surface. With the Arctic strategies of Canada, Germany and the EU in mind, the panellists will notably address issues such as institutionalized cooperation, environmental protection, economic development, navigation, resource exploitation and scientific research. Particular attention will be paid to the concerns and priorities of the indigenous communities of the North as well as to the role they may want to play in the governance of their homeland.
KM01. Building Comprehensive Understanding of the Kitikmeot Region and CHARS ERA: Marine, Terrestrial, and Community Perspectives
Donald McLennan (Polar Knowledge Canada)
Kristina Brown (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Milla Rautio (Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)
Adrian Schimnowski (Arctic Research Foundation)
There has been a significant increase in targeted scientific research on marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystem processes within the Kitikmeot Region in recent years. These research activities have contributed to baseline knowledge of these three ecosystem domains and have increased our understanding of Kitikmeot Region ecosystem processes, their present state and potential sensitivity to change. As Arctic ecosystems continue to respond to the effects of climate warming, an integrated understanding of the Kitikmeot Region will be essential for communities to prepare for and adapt to changes in their environment, underscoring the importance of increased collaboration between natural science research and community Traditional Ecological Knowledge generation. Additionally, Science staff of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR) are working with national and international researchers, and engaging local traditional knowledge, to establish the Experimental and Reference Area of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS ERA) as an Arctic Flagship Monitoring Observatory Site, and as a hub for interdisciplinary research in the Canadian Arctic.
This session hopes to bring together multidisciplinary perspectives and promote knowledge-sharing between researchers and community representatives from across the Kitikmeot Region. We welcome contributions that investigate and observe the Kitikmeot Region's marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems, including its coastal interface, as well as those that explore its connection to the broader Pan-Arctic. We also encourage contributions from community-led or community-based research programs that connect Traditional Ecological Knowledge with modern quantitative observational approaches to answer natural science questions focused in the Kitikmeot Region. Additionally, presentations are invited that will report progress in establishing CHARS ERA monitoring and research activities by national and international partners. We hope this session will promote cross-disciplinary and cross-community dialogue about the region, culminating with group discussions on how to move towards a comprehensive understanding of the Kitikmeot Region that incorporates all of these perspectives.
KM02. Co-Management, Co-Production of Knowledge and the Integration of Community-Based Monitoring to Supporting Effective Wildlife Resource Decision-Making and Inuit Self-Determination
Jamie Snook (Torngat Wildlife, Plants and Fisheries Secretariat)
Kaitlin Breton-Honeyman (Nunavik Marine Region Wildlife Board)
Tristan Pearce (University of Sunshine Coast)
Lisa Loseto (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Denis Etiendem Ndeloh (Nunavut Wildlife Management Board)
Noor Johnson (National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado)
As part of their mandates, co-management systems are responsible for conducting and reviewing research to support evidence-based decision-making about species within the land claims regions. This session focuses on co-management, co-production of knowledge and the integration of community-based monitoring into co-management of Arctic wildlife. Arctic ecosystems are undergoing a rapid transformation due to climate change and other environmental and human-driven forces. These changes have implications for arctic wildlife, and in turn, resource management for many species that Inuit depend on for subsistence. Through land claims agreements in Canada, a robust network of wildlife co-management boards, regional wildlife organizations, hunting and trapping organizations, and renewal resource councils have been created which has led to a strong network of inclusion and collaboration for shared stewardship of wildlife resources. Additionally, community-based monitoring has emerged as an important approach for data collection that offers local communities the opportunity to contribute to effective co-management via the direct engagement and the documentation and inclusion of Indigenous knowledge. The session Co-Chairs invite abstracts from co-management boards, academics and community researchers highlighting co-management, knowledge co-production and community-based monitoring research and particularly presentations that show the integration of these activities. Presentations are encouraged that highlight successful co-management research projects, advice on strategies to engage with co-management boards, or examples or narratives on how co-management led research supports Inuit self-determination and may help researchers to align with the five priority areas of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami National Inuit Strategy on Research. Papers are invited that focus on knowledge co-production of Arctic wildlife important for subsistence. Papers should describe the process (opportunities, challenges, future directions) of knowledge co-production including the documentation and integration of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit in natural resource management, conservation and/or adaptation decision-making and implications for co-management. Abstracts are welcome that describe programs using CBM data and results for decision-making and/or discuss the challenges and opportunities for CBM to contribute to co-management in Canada and beyond.
KM04. Communicating Science
Dustin Whalen (Natural Resources Canada)
Paul Sokoloff (Canadian Museum of Nature)
Generic session – no description available.
KM05. Community-Based Monitoring and Surveillance in the Circumpolar North
Ashlee Cunsolo (Labrador Institute of Memorial University)
Sherilee Harper (University of Guelph)
Cedric Yansouni (McGill University Health Centre)
David Goldfarb (British Columbia Children's & Women's Hospitals)
Tom Wong (First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Indigenous Services Canada)
Across the Circumpolar North, shifting climatic and socioeconomic conditions are adversely impacting the environment, human health, and multiple species in complex and interrelated ways. As many communities in the Circumpolar North, including Indigenous communities, continue to rely closely on the land for their sustenance and livelihoods, they are often highly sensitive to these changes. While detecting and responding to these impacts is a priority, it is a serious challenge. As a result, communities, governments, researchers, and practitioners have called for the creation of monitoring and surveillance systems that use novel approaches, integrate new types of data, and include multiple knowledge sources as a potential solution to monitor links among environmental change, livelihoods, health of ecosystems and species, and human health.
In the context of climatic and environmental change, multiple forms of monitoring and surveillance are an important component of adaptation strategies, because they build on existing infrastructure, skills, and capacity; however, existing systems are often not intended for, or adequately equipped to, detect and respond to multiple sources of environmental change and variability, nor structured to understand the range and cumulative nature of impacts on people, places, and plants and animals. Further, information and communication technology infrastructure is often lacking, hindering the ability for communities to collect and access data and share information in a timely manner.
This session invites presentation from a broad range of perspectives including community leaders, researchers, organizations, and governments working in the Circumpolar North to discuss the processes of designing, developing, and implementing community-based and community-led monitoring and surveillance programs, opportunities for participatory design of technology, insights gained and lessons learned, and use and mobilization of data collected through these systems.
KM06. Inuit Self-Determination in Research: Implementing the National Inuit Strategy on Research (participation by co-chair invitation)
Scot Nickels (Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami)
Gregor Gilbert (Makivik Corporation)
On March 22, 2018, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami released the National Inuit Strategy on Research (NISR), a pivotal document that outlines the coordinated actions required to improve the way Inuit Nunangat research is governed, resourced, conducted, and shared. The NISR was developed in coordination with the Inuit Qaujisarvingat National Committee made up of representatives of each of the members of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Board of Directors.
The document promotes a shared understanding of the legacy of Inuit Nunangat research and connects this legacy to current research practices, defines Inuit expectations for the role of research in our regions and communities, and identifies areas for participation and action between Inuit and the research community.
For far too long, researchers and research institutions have tended to be the primary beneficiaries of Inuit Nunangat research, despite the present and ongoing need for Inuit-specific data and information that can be used to shape solutions to our most pressing challenges. Furthermore, Inuit Nunangat research is too often governed, resourced, and carried out in a manner that limits Inuit participation, marginalizing Inuit from the benefits of research.
The NISR seeks to remedy these problems. It identifies five priority areas in which coordinated action is necessary to facilitate Inuit Nunangat research that is effective, impactful, and meaningful to Inuit. These five priority areas are: 1) Advance Inuit governance in research; 2) Enhance the ethical conduct of research; 3) Align funding with Inuit research priorities; 4) Ensure Inuit access, ownership, and control over data and information; and 5) Build capacity in Inuit Nunangat research.
Implementing the NISR will require a coordinated approach based on partnership. The interrelated, interdependent nature of these ﬁve priority areas, as well as the number of stakeholders involved in Inuit Nunangat research, means that new relationships must be brokered between Inuit, government departments, and research institutions in order to implement the NISR.
This session will showcase the NISR and its implementation plan by inviting individuals from within Inuit organizations, government, agencies, and academia to discuss how they are helping move towards Inuit self-determination in research.
KM08. Science Education, Outreach and Communication in the North by Early Career Researchers (ECRs): Success Stories and Challenges
Catherine Girard (Sentinelle Nord)
Sophie Dufour-Beauséjour (Centre d’études nordiques and INRS Centre Eau-Terre-Environnement)
Gwyneth MacMillan (Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval)
Science outreach, education and communication activities related to Arctic research can lead to positive exchanges of scientific and local indigenous knowledge, as well as contribute to growing capacity and developing trust between researchers and Northern community members. Activities such as community presentations, classroom visits, science camps, and sharing research through art are frequently led by early-career researchers (ECRs: graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and new Principal Investigators), who are often more involved in day-to-day interactions with communities. Although these activities are considered an integral part of conducting science in the North, the task of organizing outreach and education with communities generally falls onto the shoulders of ECRs, who often lack formal training and other resources on how to effectively engage with Indigenous communities. Northern fieldwork is also expensive and ECRs must often prioritize data collection over activities in the communities. Finally, there is little-to-no academic recognition or academic incentives for ECRs who invest time and effort in science outreach activities. Indeed, many ECRs interested in science communication may face the far-to-common perception in academia that sharing work with the public is "time away from science" and indicates lower quality work. The purpose of this session is to highlight the importance of science outreach and educational activities organized and conducted by ECRs in the North. We want to share best practices, success stories and challenges of ECRs with community engagement in outreach activities in the North. We encourage contributions from ECRs from all academic disciplines as well as from Northerners who have been involved in research education and outreach, and we would like to answer this question: How can early-career researchers engage in meaningful science outreach, education and communication in the North?
TECH01. IEEE Arctic and Northern Ocean Forum – Instrumentation and Autonomous Technologies for the North
Philip Ferguson (University of Manitoba)
Ryan Galley (University of Manitoba)
Novel instrumentation and autonomous technologies are needed to effectively monitor the Arctic and physical, chemical, and biological changes therein, in situ and/or remotely. This is due to the rapid rate of Arctic change, the cost of fieldwork, and the dearth of both spatial and temporal observations.
The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) industry has recently grown into a viable commercial sector with technologies enabling instrument deployment in remote areas. Developments include beyond visual line of sight operations, advances in path planning, obstacle avoidance and machine learning techniques for autonomously determining "areas of interest" that are useful for Arctic instrumentation.
The space sector holds promise for Arctic monitoring with nano and micro-satellites taking a prominent role. Proposed communications networks involving a mix of space-to-space and space-to-ground links can enable large constellations to operate with minimal ground station infrastructure. Similar networks promote cooperation between satellites, UAVs and ground-based sensors to provide a holistic dataset.
The availability of microcomputers, their ease-of-use, and low power consumption have driven advances in the breadth and depth of embedded systems for long-term Arctic monitoring. Deployed systems can measure atmospheric, snow and sea ice, ocean, and terrestrial parameters, and/or for military situational awareness on land or sea. This permits reliable and cost-effective spatio-temporal measurements and near-real time data telemetry to the end-user over lengthy time periods in areas and at times when fieldwork is impossible or prohibitively expensive.
This session will explore recent instrumentation and autonomous technology advancements for the North, with topics including:
TECH02. IEEE Arctic and Northern Ocean Forum – Remote Sensing and Modeling for the North
Dustin Isleifson (University of Manitoba)
Wooil Moon (University of Manitoba)
Ian Jeffrey (University of Manitoba)
The Arctic is currently undergoing significant changes, highlighted by well-documented reductions in sea ice thickness and coverage. Advancing the application and development of modeling and remote sensing technologies for Arctic applications is critical to understanding both the local and far-reaching effects of these changes.
Remote sensing systems, ranging from surface to space-borne platforms, provide a means for monitoring changes in the Arctic. Advancement in system design, including multi-spectral, multi-frequency platforms, are fast becoming viable options for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and airborne platforms. The enhancement of data show promise for retrieval of sea ice dynamics, thermodynamics, and physical state; however, the volume of data requires new methods for data interpretation through machine learning and image processing algorithms. While conventional satellite platforms provide continuous historical records, high-temporal resolution satellite data are now a reality with the launch of satellite constellation missions and are leading the way for new applications and interpretation of collected data.
Modeling techniques provide a means for interpretation and analysis of processes in the Arctic regions and lead to usable information for scientific and operation applications. Electromagnetic modeling techniques provide methods for interpreting how radar waves interact with the complex snow-covered sea ice regions in the Arctic. To be effective, forward and inverse modeling methods must be fast, efficient, and show direct application. Large-scale modeling of oceanic processes and sea ice dynamics and image processing can be accelerated through high-performance computing.
This session will explore contemporary remote sensing and modeling advancements for the North, with topics including:
TECH03. Climate Services in Canada’s North: Understanding the Evolving Needs
Kelly Montgomery (Canadian Centre for Climate Services (ECCC))
Richard Dewey (Ocean Networks Canada)
Effective climate services facilitate the end-users' understanding of the changing climate, its impacts and their vulnerabilities to those impacts and inform their decisions or actions. Climate services are most useful when tailored to the local context and to the scale of the decision, making the information or service relevant to support a user's decision, particularly when it comes to implementing successful climate adaptation strategies and measures. Climate services are generally comprised of climate data, information and products developed (or co-developed) with the end-user's needs in mind.
When it comes to Canada's northern communities and economy, what are the priority end-user needs for climate services? This is influenced largely by the decisions being contemplated and the relative contribution climate information could (or will need to) have in making those decisions now and in the future.
This session will provide an opportunity for those involved in the northern research community to discuss what they have learned about potential user needs for climate information, data and products; insights gained through the conduct of climate risk and vulnerability assessments or projects undertaken in northern communities, economic sectors, and/or with Inuit, First Nations and/or the Métis Nation. Presenters will share insights into the types of climate services currently being used in the North, while noting current gaps in services, and offering observations or commentary about the development of enhanced climate services for northern communities.